NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression.
NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 188.8.131.52) is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat. (+info)
The mechanism of rhythmic ethylene production in sorghum. The role of phytochrome B and simulated shading.
Mutant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) deficient in functional phytochrome B exhibits reduced photoperiodic sensitivity and constitutively expresses a shade-avoidance phenotype. Under relatively bright, high red:far-red light, ethylene production by seedlings of wild-type and phytochrome B-mutant cultivars progresses through cycles in a circadian rhythm; however, the phytochrome B mutant produces ethylene peaks with approximately 10 times the amplitude of the wild type. Time-course northern blots show that the mutant's abundance of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase mRNA SbACO2 is cyclic and is commensurate with ethylene production, and that ACC oxidase activity follows the same pattern. Both SbACO2 abundance and ACC oxidase activity in the wild-type plant are very low under this regimen. ACC levels in the two cultivars did not demonstrate fluctuations coincident with the ethylene produced. Simulated shading caused the wild-type plant to mimic the phenotype of the mutant and to produce high amplitude rhythms of ethylene evolution. The circadian feature of the ethylene cycle is conditionally present in the mutant and absent in the wild-type plant under simulated shading. SbACO2 abundance in both cultivars demonstrates a high-amplitude diurnal cycle under these conditions; however, ACC oxidase activity, although elevated, does not exhibit a clear rhythm correlated with ethylene production. ACC levels in both cultivars show fluctuations corresponding to the ethylene rhythm previously observed. It appears that at least two separate mechanisms may be involved in generating high-amplitude ethylene rhythms in sorghum, one in response to the loss of phytochrome B function and another in response to shading. (+info)
Identification of D-proline reductase from Clostridium sticklandii as a selenoenzyme and indications for a catalytically active pyruvoyl group derived from a cysteine residue by cleavage of a proprotein.
Highly active D-proline reductase was obtained from Clostridium sticklandii by a modified purification scheme. The cytoplasmic enzyme had a molecular mass of about 870 kDa and was composed of three subunits with molecular masses of 23, 26, and 45 kDa. The 23-kDa subunit contained a carbonyl group at its N terminus, which could either be labeled with fluorescein thiosemicarbazide or removed by o-phenylenediamine; thus, N-terminal sequencing became feasible for this subunit. L-[14C]proline was covalently bound to the 23-kDa subunit if proline racemase and NaBH4 were added. Selenocysteine was detected in the 26-kDa subunit, which correlated with an observed selenium content of 10.6 g-atoms in D-proline reductase. No other non-proteinaceous cofactor was identified in the enzyme. A 4.8-kilobase pair (kb) EcoRI fragment was isolated and sequenced containing the two genes prdA and prdB. prdA coding for a 68-kDa protein was most likely translated as a proprotein that was posttranslationally cleaved at a threonine-cysteine site to give the 45-kDa subunit and most probably a pyruvoyl-containing 23-kDa subunit. The gene prdB encoded the 26-kDa subunit and contained an in frame UGA codon for selenocysteine insertion. prdA and prdB were transcribed together on a transcript of 4.5 kb; prdB was additionally transcribed as indicated by a 0.8-kb mRNA species. (+info)
Substrate-specific selenoprotein B of glycine reductase from Eubacterium acidaminophilum. Biochemical and molecular analysis.
The substrate-specific selenoprotein B of glycine reductase (PBglycine) from Eubacterium acidaminophilum was purified and characterized. The enzyme consisted of three different subunits with molecular masses of about 22 (alpha), 25 (beta) and 47 kDa (gamma), probably in an alpha 2 beta 2 gamma 2 composition. PBglycine purified from cells grown in the presence of [75Se]selenite was labeled in the 47-kDa subunit. The 22-kDa and 47-kDa subunits both reacted with fluorescein thiosemicarbazide, indicating the presence of a carbonyl compound. This carbonyl residue prevented N-terminal sequencing of the 22-kDa (alpha) subunit, but it could be removed for Edman degradation by incubation with o-phenylenediamine. A DNA fragment was isolated and sequenced which encoded beta and alpha subunits of PBglycine (grdE), followed by a gene encoding selenoprotein A (grdA2) and the gamma subunit of PBglycine (grdB2). The cloned DNA fragment represented a second GrdB-encoding gene slightly different from a previously identified partial grdBl-containing fragment. Both grdB genes contained an in-frame UGA codon which confirmed the observed selenium content of the 47-kDa (gamma) subunit. Peptide sequence analyses suggest that grdE encodes a proprotein which is cleaved into the previously sequenced N-terminal 25-kDa (beta) subunit and a 22-kDa (alpha) subunit of PBglycine. Cleavage most probably occurred at an -Asn-Cys- site concomitantly with the generation of the blocking carbonyl moiety from cysteine at the alpha subunit. (+info)
Oxygen depletion-induced dormancy in Mycobacterium bovis BCG.
Gradual depletion of oxygen causes the shift-down of aerobic growing Mycobacterium bovis BCG to an anaerobic synchronized state of nonreplicating persistence. The persistent culture shows induction of glycine dehydrogenase and alpha-crystallin-like protein and is sensitive to metronidazole. (+info)
Structural characterization of l-aspartate oxidase and identification of an interdomain loop by limited proteolysis.
l-Aspartate oxidase is the first enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of pyridinic coenzymes in facultative aerobic organisms. The enzyme is FAD dependent and it shares common features with both the oxidase and the fumarate reductase classes of flavoproteins. In this report we focused our attention on the supersecondary structure of the molecule by means of limited proteolysis studies. Moreover the polymerization state of the protein at different pH and the interactions with NAD and its analogues are described. The results suggest that l-aspartate oxidase is a monomer at pH values lower than 4.5 and a dimer at pH values higher than 6.5. The protein is organized in two major domains connected by a flexible loop located in the 120-140 region. The data obtained by limited proteolysis of the holo and the apo form in the presence and in the absence of substrates (fumarate and menadione), inhibitors (succinate) and NAD allows the proposition that both domains are involved in the binding of the flavin coenzyme. Moreover the data reported in this manuscript suggest that NAD inhibits l-aspartate oxidase activity by competing with the flavin for the binding to the enzyme. (+info)
Control of expression of one-carbon metabolism genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by a tetrahydrofolate-responsive protein binding to a glycine regulatory region including a core 5'-CTTCTT-3' motif.
Expression of yeast genes involved in one-carbon metabolism is controlled by glycine, by L-methionine, and by nitrogen sources. Here we report a novel control element containing a core CTTCTT motif mediating the glycine response, demonstrating that a protein binds this element, that binding is modulated by tetrahydrofolate, and that folate is required for the in vivo glycine response. In an heterologous CYC1 promoter the region needed for the glycine response of GCV2 (encoding the P-subunit of glycine decarboxylase) mediated repression that was relieved by glycine. It was also responsible for L-methionine control but not nitrogen repression. GCV1 and GCV3 have an homologous region in their promoters. The GCV1 region conferred a glycine response on an heterologous promoter acting as a repressor or activator depending on promoter context. A protein was identified that bound to the glycine regulatory regions of GCV1 and GCV2 only if the CTTCTT motif was intact. This protein protected a 17-base pair CATCN7CTTCTT region of GCV2 that is conserved between GCV1 and GCV2. Protein binding was increased by tetrahydrofolate, and use of a fol1 deletion mutant indicated the involvement of a folate in the in vivo glycine response. Tetrahydrofolate or a derivative may act as a ligand for the transcription factor controlling expression of one-carbon metabolism genes. (+info)
Purification of beef kidney D-aspartate oxidase overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterization of its redox potentials and oxidative activity towards agonists and antagonists of excitatory amino acid receptors.
The flavoenzyme d-aspartate oxidase from beef kidney (DASPO, EC 1.4. 3.1) has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli. A purification procedure, faster than the one used for the enzyme from the natural source (bDASPO), has been set up yielding about 2 mg of pure recombinant protein (rDASPO) per each gram of wet E. coli paste. rDASPO has been shown to possess the same general biochemical properties of bDASPO, except that the former contains only FAD, while the latter is a mixture of two forms, one active containing FAD and one inactive containing 6-OH-FAD (9-20% depending on the preparation). This results in a slightly higher specific activity (about 15%) for rDASPO compared to bDASPO and in facilitated procedures for apoprotein preparation and reconstitution. Redox potentials of -97 mV and -157 mV were determined for free and l-(+)-tartrate complexed DASPO, respectively, in 0.1 M KPi, pH 7.0, 25 degrees C. The large positive shift in the redox potential of the coenzyme compared to free FAD (-207 mV) is in agreement with similar results obtained with other flavooxidases. rDASPO has been used to assess a possible oxidative activity of the enzyme towards a number of compounds used as agonists or antagonists of neurotransmitters, including d-aspartatic acid, d-glutamic acid, N-methyl-d-aspartic acid, d,l-cysteic acid, d-homocysteic acid, d, l-2-amino-3-phosphonopropanoic acid, d-alpha-aminoadipic acid, d-aspartic acid-beta-hydroxamate, glycyl-d-aspartic acid and cis-2, 3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid. Kinetic parameters for each substrate in 50 mM KPi, pH 7.4, 25 degrees C are reported. (+info)