Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart.
1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate. (+info)
Analysis of gabapentin in serum and plasma by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring.
A simple method for the determination of gabapentin (Neurontin) is described. The method uses solid-phase extraction by disk column and derivatization followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. The single-step derivatization with MTBSTFA produces a t-BDMS derivative of both the carboxylic and amine moieties of the molecule. Each step of the procedure was optimized to assure reliable performance of the method. The assay limit of detection was 0.1 microg/mL with a linear range from 1.0 to 35 microg/mL. Within-run (n = 3) and between-run (n = 40) coefficients of variation were less than 8.2 and 15.9%, respectively. The method has proven reliable in routine production for more than a year, producing clean chromatography with unique ion fragments, consistent ion mass ratios, and no interferences. Statistical analysis of the gabapentin concentrations measured in 1020 random specimens over a 2-month period showed a mean concentration of 6.07 microg/mL with a standard deviation of 5.28. (+info)
Gabapentin suppresses ectopic nerve discharges and reverses allodynia in neuropathic rats.
Repetitive ectopic discharges from injured afferent nerves play an important role in initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is effective for treatment of neuropathic pain but the sites and mechanisms of its antinociceptive actions remain uncertain. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that therapeutic doses of gabapentin suppress ectopic afferent discharge activity generated from injured peripheral nerves. Mechanical allodynia, induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats, was determined by application of von Frey filaments to the hindpaw. Single-unit afferent nerve activity was recorded proximal to the ligated sciatic nerve site. Intravenous gabapentin, in a range of 30 to 90 mg/kg, significantly attenuated allodynia in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, gabapentin, in the same therapeutic dose range, dose-dependently inhibited the ectopic discharge activity of 15 injured sciatic afferent nerve fibers through an action on impulse generation. However, the conduction velocity and responses of 12 normal afferent fibers to mechanical stimulation were not affected by gabapentin. Therefore, this study provides electrophysiological evidence that gabapentin is capable of suppressing the ectopic discharge activity from injured peripheral nerves. This action may contribute, at least in part, to the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain. (+info)
Removal of non-specific serum inhibitors of haemagglutination of rubella virus by treatment with dodecylamine-gel.
The suitability of using dodecylamine-gel for removing the serum non-antibody-like inhibitors of haemagglutination by rubella was studied. Compared with kaolin and MnCl2/heparin treatment this new procedure appears to have a higher specificity since it removes the non-antibody-like inhibitors from serum without affecting the immunoglobulin level significantly. The potential application of this procedure in routine serological analysis for rubella virus infection is discussed. (+info)
N-acetyltransferase 1 genetic polymorphism, cigarette smoking, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk.
N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), encoded by the polymorphic NAT1 gene, has been shown to be one of the major enzymes in human breast tissue that activates aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Humans are mainly exposed to these carcinogens through cigarette smoking and consumption of well-done meat. To test the hypothesis that variations in the NAT1 gene are related to breast cancer risk, particularly among women who smoke or consume high levels of well-done meat, a nested case-control study was conducted in a prospective cohort study of 41,837 postmenopausal Iowa women. Information on cigarette smoking and other breast cancer risk factors was obtained at the baseline survey conducted in 1986. DNA samples and information on the consumption of well-done meat were obtained, in the case-control study, from breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1992 to 1994 and a random sample of cancer-free cohort members. Genomic DNA samples obtained from 154 cases and 330 controls were assayed for 11 NAT1 alleles (NAT1*3, *4, *5, *10, *11, *14, *15, *16, *17, *19, and *22). The NAT1*4 allele was the predominant allele observed in this study population, accounting for 73.2% (72.4% in cases versus 73.8% in controls) of the total alleles analyzed. Compared to controls, breast cancer cases had a slightly higher frequency of the NAT1*10 allele (18.8% in cases versus 17.3% in controls) and a substantially higher frequency of the NAT1*11 allele (3.6% versus 1.2%). In multivariate analyses, we found a 30% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8-1.9] elevated risk of breast cancer associated with the NAT1*10 allele and a nearly 4-fold (95% CI = 1.5-10.5) elevated risk associated with the NAT1*11 allele. The positive association of breast cancer with the NAT1*11 allele was more evident among smokers [odds ratio (OR) = 13.2, 95% CI = 1.5-116.0] and those who consumed a high level of red meat (OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 1.1-33.2) or consistently consumed their red meat well done (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 0.5-62.7). The association of the NAT1*10 allele with breast cancer was mainly confined to former smokers (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.2-9.5). These findings are consistent with a role for the NAT1 gene in the etiology of human breast cancer. (+info)
An in vitro electrophysiological study on the effects of phenytoin, lamotrigine and gabapentin on striatal neurons.
We performed intracellular recordings from a rat corticostriatal slice preparation in order to compare the electrophysiological effects of the classical antiepileptic drug (AED) phenytoin (PHT) and the new AEDs lamotrigine (LTG) and gabapentin (GBP) on striatal neurons. PHT, LTG and GBP affected neither the resting membrane potential nor the input resistance/membrane conductance of the recorded cells. In contrast, these agents depressed in a dose-dependent and reversible manner the current-evoked repetitive firing discharge. These AEDs also reduced the amplitude of glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by cortical stimulation. However, substantial pharmacological differences between these drugs were found. PHT was the most effective and potent agent in reducing sustained repetitive firing of action potentials, whereas LTG and GBP preferentially inhibited corticostriatal excitatory transmission. Concentrations of LTG and GBP effective in reducing EPSPs, in fact, produced only a slight inhibition of the firing activity of these cells. LTG, but not PHT and GBP, depressed cortically-evoked EPSPs increasing paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of synaptic transmission, suggesting that a presynaptic site of action was implicated in the effect of this drug. Accordingly, PHT and GBP, but not LTG reduced the membrane depolarizations induced by exogenously-applied glutamate, suggesting that these drugs preferentially reduce postsynaptic sensitivity to glutamate released from corticostriatal terminals. These data indicate that in the striatum PHT, LTG and GBP decrease neuronal excitability by modulating multiple sites of action. The preferential modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission may represent the cellular substrate for the therapeutic effects of new AEDs whose use may be potentially extended to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases involving the basal ganglia. (+info)
Cancer chemopreventive mechanisms of tea against heterocyclic amine mutagens from cooked meat.
Cooking meat and fish under normal conditions produces heterocyclic amine mutagens, several of which have been shown to induce colon tumors in experimental animals. In our search for natural dietary components that might protect against these mutagens, it was found that green tea and black tea inhibit the formation of heterocyclic amine-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat. Since ACF are considered to be putative preneoplastic lesions, we examined the inhibitory mechanisms of tea against the heterocyclic amines. In the initial studies using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, green tea and black tea inhibited according to the concentration of tea leaves during brewing and the time of brewing; a 2-3-min brew of 5% green tea (w/v) was sufficient for >90% antimutagenic activity. N-hydroxylated heterocyclic amines, which are direct-acting mutagens in Salmonella, were inhibited by complete tea beverage and by individual components of tea, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Inhibition did not involve enhanced mutagen degradation, and EGCG and other catechins complexed only weakly with the mutagens, suggesting electrophile scavenging as an alternative mechanism. Enzymes that contribute to the metabolic activation of heterocyclic amines, namely microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and N, O-acetyltransferase, were inhibited by tea in vitro. Studies in vivo established that tea also induces cytochromes P450 and Phase II enzymes in a manner consistent with the rapid metabolism and excretion of heterocyclic amines. Collectively, the results indicate that tea possesses anticarcinogenic activity in the colon, and this most likely involves multiple inhibitory mechanisms. (+info)
Phospholipid-assisted refolding of an integral membrane protein. Minimum structural features for phosphatidylethanolamine to act as a molecular chaperone.
Escherichia coli-derived phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or PE with fully saturated fatty acids was able to correct in vitro a defect in folding in the lipid-dependent epitope 4B1 of lactose permease (LacY) resulting from in vivo assembly in the absence of PE. PE plasmalogen, PE with two unsaturated fatty acids, and lyso-PE, which all do not favor bilayer organization, did not support proper refolding. Proper refolding occurred when these latter lipids were mixed with a bilayer-forming lipid (phosphatidylglycerol), which alone could not support refolding. L-Phosphatidylserine (PS; natural diastereomer) did support proper refolding. PE derivatives of increasing degrees of methylation were progressively less effective in supporting refolding, with phosphatidylcholine being completely ineffective. Therefore, the properties of nonmethylated aminophospholipids capable of organization into a bilayer configuration are essential for the recovery of the native state of epitope 4B1 after misassembly in vivo in the absence of PE. Neither D-PS (sn-glycero-1-phosphate backbone) nor P-D-S (D-serine in the head group) is competent in supporting proper refolding unless used in binary mixtures with phosphatidylglycerol. The detailed characterization of phospholipid-assisted refolding reported here further supports a specific rather than nonspecific role for PE in structural maturation of lactose permease in vivo (Bogdanov, M., and Dowhan, W. (1998) EMBO J. 17, 5255-5264). (+info)