Reaction specificity of native and nicked 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) decarboxylase is a stereospecific pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alpha-decarboxylase that converts L-aromatic amino acids into their corresponding amines. We now report that reaction of the enzyme with D-5-hydroxytryptophan or D-Dopa results in a time-dependent inactivation and conversion of the PLP coenzyme to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate and PLP-D-amino acid Pictet-Spengler adducts, which have been identified by high performance liquid chromatography. We also show that the reaction specificity of Dopa decarboxylase toward aromatic amines depends on the experimental conditions. Whereas oxidative deamination occurs under aerobic conditions (Bertoldi, M., Moore, P. S., Maras, B., Dominici, P., and Borri Voltattorni, C. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 23954-23959; Bertoldi, M., Dominici, P., Moore, P. S., Maras, B., and Borri Voltattorni, C. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 6552-6561), half-transamination and Pictet-Spengler reactions take place under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, we examined the reaction specificity of nicked Dopa decarboxylase, obtained by selective tryptic cleavage of the native enzyme between Lys334 and His335. Although this enzymatic species does not exhibit either decarboxylase or oxidative deamination activities, it retains a large percentage of the native transaminase activity toward D-aromatic amino acids and displays a slow transaminase activity toward aromatic amines. These transamination reactions occur concomitantly with the formation of cyclic coenzyme-substrate adducts. Together with additional data, we thus suggest that native Dopa decarboxylase can exist as an equilibrium among "open," "half-open," and "closed" forms. (+info)
Effect of the ratio between essential and nonessential amino acids in the diet on utilization of nitrogen and amino acids by growing pigs.
In 36 growing pigs (30 to 60 kg), N balance and amino acid (AA) composition of weight gain were measured to evaluate the interactive effect of the ratio between N from essential amino acids (EAA(N)) to nonessential amino acids (NEAA(N)) and total N level (T(N)) in the diet on N retention and utilization of N, EAA(N), NEAA(N), and AA. Nine diets composed from ordinary feedstuffs and supplemented with crystalline AA were used (three EAA(N):NEAA(N) ratios of 38:62, 50:50, and 62:38 at three T(N) levels of 18.8, 22.9, and 30.0 g/kg). Pigs were fed restrictedly, at a level of 2.8 x energy for maintenance. In all diets, EAA (including arginine) supply was according to or slightly above the recommended ratios to lysine. Measurements were done in four blocks of nine pigs each. In a concomitant slaughter experiment, the AA composition of deposited body protein was determined to estimate AA utilization. The effects of T(N) and EAA(N):NEAA(N) and their interaction for N retention and utilization were significant. Nitrogen retention increased with higher T(N) in the diet. Increasing EAA(N):NEAA(N) from 38:62 to 50:50 improved N retention only at the two lower T(N) levels. Increasing EAA(N): NEAA(N) above 50:50 failed to improve N retention significantly at any of the three T(N) levels. Lowering T(N) improved the utilization of total and digested N and of EAA(N) and NEAA(N). The increase in EAA(N): NEAA(N) consistently resulted in a lower utilization of EAA(N), but this was compensated by a higher utilization of NEAA(N). The utilization of T(N) was improved by increasing EAA(N):NEAA(N) from 38:62 to 50:50 at the two lower T(N) levels and was relatively unaffected by EAA(N):NEAA(N) at the highest T(N). However, a lower utilization of N was observed at a ratio of 62:38 at a T(N) level of 22.9 g/kg. The effects were similar for utilization of individual EAA and NEAA. Utilization of alanine, aspartic acid, and glycine was close to or >100% at the highest EAA(N):NEAA(N), which was expected because all of these AA are synthesized in pigs. Also, the utilization of arginine was >100% in most of the treatments, which confirms the semiessential character of this AA for maintenance. We concluded that the required ratio of EAA(N):NEAA(N) for optimal N retention and utilization is approximately 50:50. The EAA(N):NEAA(N) is more important at lower dietary protein levels. This study indicates that EAA(N): NEAA(N) can be increased up to 70:30 without lowering the utilization of N. Thus, deaminated EAA(N) was efficiently utilized for the synthesis of NEAA(N). (+info)
Effects of branched-chain-enriched amino acids and insulin on forearm leucine kinetics.
Although amino acid mixtures enriched in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and deficient in aromatic amino acids (AAA) are often used together with insulin and glucose in clinical nutrition, their physiological effects on muscle protein anabolism are not known. To this aim, we studied forearm leucine kinetics in post-absorptive volunteers, before and after the systemic infusion of BCAA-enriched, AAA-deficient amino acids along with insulin and the euglycaemic clamp. The results were compared with the effects of insulin infusion alone. A compartmental leucine forearm model was employed at steady state. Hyperaminoacidaemia with hyperinsulinaemia (to approximately 80-100 micro-units/ml) increased the leucine plasma concentration (+70%; P<0.001), inflow into the forearm cell (+150%; P<0.01), disposal into protein synthesis (+100%; P<0.01), net intracellular retention (P<0.01), net forearm balance (by approximately 6-fold; P<0.01) and net deamination to alpha-ketoisocaproate (4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate) (+9%; P<0.05). Leucine release from forearm proteolysis and outflow from the forearm cell were unchanged. In contrast, hyperinsulinaemia alone decreased plasma leucine concentrations (-35%; P<0.001) and leucine inflow (-20%; P<0.05) and outflow (-30%; P<0.01) into and out of forearm cell(s), it increased net intracellular leucine retention (P<0.03), and it did not change leucine release from forearm proteolysis (-20%; P=0.138), net leucine deamination to alpha-ketoisocaproate, leucine disposal into protein synthesis or net forearm protein balance. By considering all data together, leucine disposal into protein synthesis was directly correlated with leucine inflow into the cell (r=0.71; P<0.0001). These data indicate that the infusion of BCAA-enriched, AAA-deficient amino acids along with insulin is capable of stimulating forearm (i.e. muscle) protein anabolism in normal volunteers by enhancing intracellular leucine transport and protein synthesis. These effects are probably due to hyperaminoacidaemia and/or its interaction with hyperinsulinaemia, since they were not observed under conditions of hyperinsulinaemia alone. (+info)
Fluorescent neoglycolipids. Improved probes for oligosaccharide ligand discovery.
A second generation of lipid-linked oligosaccharide probes, fluorescent neoglycolipids, has been designed and synthesized for ligand discovery within highly complex mixtures of oligosaccharides. The aminolipid 1,2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE), which has been used extensively to generate neoglycolipids for biological and structural studies, has been modified to incorporate a fluorescent label, anthracene. This new lipid reagent, N-aminoacetyl-N-(9-anthracenylmethyl)-1, 2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (ADHP), synthesized from anthracenaldehyde and DHPE gives an intense fluorescence under UV light. Fluorescent neoglycolipids derived from a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides by conjugation to ADHP, by reductive amination, can be detected and quantified by spectrophotometry and scanning densitometry, and resolved by TLC and HPLC with subpicomole detection. Antigenicities of the ADHP-neoglycolipids are well retained, and picomole levels can be detected using monoclonal carbohydrate sequence-specific antibodies. Among O-glycans from an ovarian cystadenoma mucin, isomeric oligosaccharide sequences, sialyl-Lea- and sialyl-Lex-active, could be resolved by HPLC as fluorescent neoglycolipids, and sequenced by liquid secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Thus the neoglycolipid technology now uniquely combines high sensitivity of immuno-detection with a comparable sensitivity of chemical detection. Principles are thus established for a streamlined technology whereby an oligosaccharide population is carried through ligand detection and ligand isolation steps, and sequence determination by mass spectrometry, enzymatic sequencing and other state-of-the-art technologies for carbohydrate analysis. (+info)
Structure of the Bordetella pertussis 1414 endotoxin.
The endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) of Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, consists of a lipid A linked to a highly branched dodecasaccharide containing several acid and amino sugars. The elucidation of the polysaccharide structure was accomplished by first analyzing the structures of fragments obtained by hydrolysis and nitrous deamination and then piecing the fragments together. The fine structure of the antigenic distal pentasaccharide, presented here, was determined by chemical analyses as well as by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The complete structure was reconstituted and confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The following structure was derived from the combined experimental data:The detailed structure combined with previously reported serological data now allows the synthesis of its epitopes for potential vaccines. (+info)
Electrospray mass spectrometry and fragmentation of N-linked carbohydrates derivatized at the reducing terminus.
Derivatives were prepared from N-linked glycans by reductive amination from 2-aminobenzamide, 2-aminopyridine, 3-aminoquinoline, 2-aminoacridone, 4-amino-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)benzamide, and the methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Their electrospray and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation spectra were examined with a Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The strongest signals were obtained from the [M + Na]+ ions for all derivatives except sugars derivatized with 4-amino-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)benzamide which gave very strong doubly charged [M + H + Na]2+ ions. The strongest [M + Na]+ ion signals were obtained from the butyl ester of 4-aminobenzoic acid and the weakest from 2-aminopyridine. The most informative spectra were recorded from the [M + Li]+ or [M + Na]+ ions. These spectra were dominated by ions produced by sequence-revealing glycosidic cleavages and "internal" fragments. Linkage-revealing cross-ring cleavage ions were reasonably abundant, particularly from high-mannose glycans. Although the nature of the derivative was found to have little effect upon the fragmentation pattern, 3-aminoquinoline derivatives gave marginally more abundant cross-ring fragments than the other derivatives. [M + H]+ ions formed only glycosidic fragments with few, if any, cross-ring cleavage ions. Doubly charged molecular ions gave less informative spectra; singly charged fragments were weak, and molecular ions containing hydrogen ([M + 2H]2+ and [M + H + Na]2+) fragmented as the [M + H]+ singly charged ions with no significant cross-ring cleavages. (+info)
Bisulfite genomic sequencing: systematic investigation of critical experimental parameters.
Bisulfite genomic sequencing is the method of choice for the generation of methylation maps with single-base resolution. The method is based on the selective deamination of cytosine to uracil by treatment with bisulfite and the sequencing of subsequently generated PCR products. In contrast to cytosine, 5-methylcytosine does not react with bisulfite and can therefore be distinguished. In order to investigate the potential for optimization of the method and to determine the critical experimental parameters, we determined the influence of incubation time and incubation temperature on the deamination efficiency and measured the degree of DNA degradation during the bisulfite treatment. We found that maximum conversion rates of cytosine occurred at 55 degrees C (4-18 h) and 95 degrees C (1 h). Under these conditions at least 84-96% of the DNA is degraded. To study the impact of primer selection, homologous DNA templates were constructed possessing cytosine-containing and cytosine-free primer binding sites, respectively. The recognition rates for cytosine (>/=97%) and 5-methylcytosine (>/=94%) were found to be identical for both templates. (+info)
1-Oxo-2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroacronycine: a useful synthon in the acronycine series for the introduction of amino substituents at 6-position and for the conversion into isopropylfuroacridones.
Thermic aromatic nucleophilic displacement of the methoxy group at C-6 of (+/-)-1-oxo-2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroacronycine (2) by an amine is a reaction that gives a facile entry to acronycine derivatives bearing an amino substituent at this position. The introduction of the amino substituents was confirmed with a long-range 1H-15N correlation NMR spectrum at natural abundance. Under basic conditions, compound 2 can also be rearranged to the corresponding isopropylfuroacridone 12, in 80% yield. (+info)