Inhibition by amiloride of sodium-dependent fluid reabsorption in the rat isolated caudal epididymis.
The rate of fluid reabsorption was studied in the rat isolated caudal epididymal sac in vitro. 2 Part of the fluid reabsorption was found to be dependent on intraluminal Na+. Amiloride (0.1 mM) completely inhibited this component of fluid reabsorption. 3 The log dose-inhibition curve to amiloride was sigmoid and the IC50 value was found to be 1.6 muM. (+info)
Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride.
The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process. (+info)
Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium.
1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response. (+info)
Regulation of an amiloride-sensitive Na+-permeable channel by a beta2-adrenergic agonist, cytosolic Ca2+ and Cl- in fetal rat alveolar epithelium.
1. In cell-attached patches formed on the apical membrane of fetal alveolar epithelium, terbutaline (a specific beta2-adrenergic agonist) increased the open probability (Po) of an amiloride-sensitive Na+-permeable non-selective cation (NSC) channel (control, 0.03 +/- 0.04; terbutaline, 0.62 +/- 0.18; n = 8, P < 0. 00001) by increasing the mean open time 100-fold without any significant change in the mean closed time and without any change in the single channel conductance (control, 27.8 +/- 2.3 pS; terbutaline, 28.2 +/- 2.1 pS; n = 8). 2. The Po of the unstimulated channel increased when the apical membrane was depolarized due to a decrease in the closing rate and an increase in the opening rate, while the Po of the terbutaline-stimulated channel did not depend on the membrane potential. 3. Increased cytosolic [Ca2+] also increased the Po of the channel in a manner consistent with one Ca2+-binding site on the cytosolic surface of the channel. Terbutaline increased the sensitivity of the channel to cytosolic Ca2+ by shifting the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) required for half-maximal activation to a lower [Ca2+]c value, leading to an increase in Po. 4. An increase in the cytosolic Cl- concentration ([Cl-]c) decreased the Po of the channel consistent with two Cl--binding sites by increasing the closing rate without any significant change in the opening rate. Terbutaline increased Po by reducing the effect of cytosolic Cl- to promote channel closing. 5. Taken together, these observations indicate that terbutaline activates a Ca2+-activated, Cl--inhibitable, amiloride-sensitive, Na+-permeable NSC channel in fetal rat alveolar epithelium in two ways: first, through an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity, and second, through a reduction in the effect of cytosolic Cl- to promote channel closing. (+info)
Increased calcium entry into dystrophin-deficient muscle fibres of MDX and ADR-MDX mice is reduced by ion channel blockers.
1. Single fibres were enzymatically isolated from interosseus muscles of dystrophic MDX mice, myotonic-dystrophic double mutant ADR-MDX mice and C57BL/10 controls. The fibres were kept in cell culture for up to 2 weeks for the study of Ca2+ homeostasis and sarcolemmal Ca2+ permeability. 2. Resting levels of intracellular free Ca2+, determined with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2, were slightly higher in MDX (63 +/- 20 nM; means +/- s.d.; n = 454 analysed fibres) and ADR-MDX (65 +/- 12 nM; n = 87) fibres than in controls (51 +/- 20 nM; n = 265). 3. The amplitudes of electrically induced Ca2+ transients did not differ between MDX fibres and controls. Decay time constants of Ca2+ transients ranged between 10 and 55 ms in both genotypes. In 50 % of MDX fibres (n = 68), but in only 20 % of controls (n = 54), the decay time constants were > 35 ms. 4. Bath application of Mn2+ resulted in a progressive quench of fura-2 fluorescence emitted from the fibres. The quench rate was about 2 times higher in MDX fibres (3.98 +/- 1.9 % min-1; n = 275) than in controls (2.03 +/- 1.4 % min-1; n = 204). The quench rate in ADR-MDX fibres (2.49 +/- 1.4 % min-1; n = 87) was closer to that of controls. 5. The Mn2+ influx into MDX fibres was reduced to 10 % by Gd3+, to 19 % by La3+ and to 47 % by Ni2+ (all at 50 microM). Bath application of 50 microM amiloride inhibited the Mn2+ influx to 37 %. 6. We conclude that in isolated, resting MDX muscle fibres the membrane permeability for divalent cations is increased. The presumed additional influx of Ca2+ occurs through ion channels, but is well compensated for by effective cellular Ca2+ transport systems. The milder dystrophic phenotype of ADR-MDX mice is correlated with a smaller increase of their sarcolemmal Ca2+ permeability. (+info)
Feedback inhibition of rat amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
1. Regulation of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is essential for the control of body sodium homeostasis. The downregulation of the activity of this Na+ channel that occurs when the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) is increased is known as feedback inhibition. Although intracellular Na+ is the trigger for this phenomenon, its cellular and molecular mediators are unknown. 2. We used the 'cut-open oocyte' technique to control the composition of the intracellular milieu of Xenopus oocytes expressing rat ENaCs to enable us to test several factors potentially involved in feedback inhibition. 3. The effects of perfusion of the intracellular space were demonstrated by an electromicrographic study and the time course of the intracellular solution exchange was established by observing the effect of intracellular pH: a decrease from pH 7.4 to 6.5 reduced the amiloride-sensitive current by about 40 % within 2 min. 4. Feedback inhibition was observed in non-perfused oocytes when Na+ entry induced a large increase in [Na+]i. Intracellular perfusion prevented feedback regulation even though the [Na+]i was allowed to increase to values above 50 mM. 5. No effects on the amiloride-sensitive current were observed after changes in the concentration of Na+ (from 1 to 50 mM), Ca2+ (from 10 to 1000 nM) or ATP (from nominally free to 1 or 5 mM) in the intracellular perfusate. 6. We conclude that feedback inhibition requires intracellular factors that can be removed by intracellular perfusion. Although a rise in [Na+]i may be the trigger for the feedback inhibition of the ENaC, this effect is not mediated by a direct effect of Na+, Ca2+ or ATP on the ENaC protein. (+info)
Shrinkage-induced activation of Na+/H+ exchange in rat renal mesangial cells.
Using the pH-sensitive dye 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), we examined the effect of hyperosmolar solutions, which presumably caused cell shrinkage, on intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in mesangial cells (single cells or populations) cultured from the rat kidney. The calibration of BCECF is identical in shrunken and unshrunken mesangial cells if the extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]) is adjusted to match the predicted intracellular [K+]. For pHi values between approximately 6.7 and approximately 7.4, the intrinsic buffering power in shrunken cells (600 mosmol/kgH2O) is threefold larger than in unshrunken cells (approximately 300 mosmol/kgH2O). In the nominal absence of CO2/HCO-3, exposing cell populations to a HEPES-buffered solution supplemented with approximately 300 mM mannitol (600 mosmol/kgH2O) causes steady-state pHi to increase by approximately 0.4. The pHi increase is due to activation of Na+/H+ exchange because, in single cells, it is blocked in the absence of external Na+ or in the presence of 50 microM ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA). Preincubating cells in a Cl--free solution for at least 14 min inhibits the shrinkage-induced pHi increase by 80%. We calculated the pHi dependence of the Na+/H+ exchange rate in cell populations under normosmolar and hyperosmolar conditions by summing 1) the pHi dependence of the total acid-extrusion rate and 2) the pHi dependence of the EIPA-insensitive acid-loading rate. Shrinkage alkali shifts the pHi dependence of Na+/H+ exchange by approximately 0.7 pH units. (+info)
Effects of arginine vasopressin on cell volume regulation in brain astrocyte in culture.
Astrocytes initially swell when exposed to hypotonic medium but rapidly return to normal volume by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD). The role that arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays in hypotonically mediated RVD in astrocytes is unknown. This study was therefore designed to determine whether AVP might play a role in astrocyte RVD. With the use of 3-O-[3H]methyl-D-glucose to determine water space, AVP treatment resulted in significantly increased 3-O-methyl-D-glucose water space within 30 s of hypotonic exposure (P = 0.0001) and remained significantly elevated above baseline (1. 75 microliter/mg protein) at 5 min (P < 0.021). In contrast, in untreated cells, complete RVD was achieved by 5 min. At 30 s, cell volume with AVP treatment was 37% greater than in cells that received no treatment (2.9 vs. 2.26 microliter/mg protein, respectively; P < 0.006). The rate of cell volume increase (dV/dt) over 30 s was highly significant (0.038 vs. 0.019 microliter. mg protein-1. s-1 in the AVP-treated vs. untreated group; P = 0.0004 by regression analysis). Additionally, the rate of cell volume decrease over the next 4.5 min was also significantly greater with vasopressin treatment (-dV/dt = 0.0027 vs. 0.0013 microliter. mg protein-1. s-1; P = 0.0306). The effect of AVP was concentration dependent with EC50 = 3.5 nM. To determine whether AVP action was receptor mediated, we performed RVD studies in the presence of the V1-receptor antagonists benzamil and ethylisopropryl amiloride and the V2-receptor agonist 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). Both V1-receptor antagonists significantly inhibited AVP-mediated volume increase by 40-47% (P < 0.005), whereas DDAVP had no stimulatory effects above control. Taken together, these data suggest that AVP treatment of brain astrocytes in culture appears to increase 3-O-methyl-D-glucose water space during RVD through V1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. The significance of these findings is presently unclear. (+info)