(1/633) Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods.
Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin. (+info)
(2/633) UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study.
UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent. (+info)
(3/633) Bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis.
Two long-term therapy trials with high concentrations of antibiotic were carried out to determine the duration of therapy required to achieve bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in guinea pigs. In the first study, corneas still contained Pseudomonas after 4 days of continual topical therapy with either tobramycin 400 mg/ml, amikacin 250 mg/ml, ticarcillin 400 mg/ml, or carbenicillin 400 mg/ml. In an 11-day trial of topical therapy with tobramycin 20 mg/ml, 34 of 36 corneas grew no Pseudomonas after 6 or more days of therapy. The bacteriologic response to therapy in this model occurred in two phases. About 99.9% or more of the organisms in the cornea were killed in the first 24 hr of therapy. The numbers of bacteria remaining in the cornea declined gradually over the next several days until the corneas were sterile. Optimal antibiotic therapy may include two stages: initial intensive therapy with high concentrations of antibiotic applied frequently to achieve a large rapid decrease in numbers of organisms in the cornea, followed by prolonged, less intensive therapy to eradicate organisms and prevent relapse. (+info)
(4/633) Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey.
Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin. (+info)
(5/633) Killing kinetics of intracellular Afipia felis treated with amikacin.
Afipia felis is a facultative intracellular bacterium which multiplies in macrophages following inhibition of phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion. When A. felis-infected cells are incubated for 72 h with various antibiotics, only aminoglycosides are found to be bactericidal. We therefore studied the killing of intracellular A. felis by amikacin, and its relationship with the restoration of P-L fusion. Amikacin reduced the number of A. felis from 8.5 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 102 cfu/mL within 94 h. P-L fusion was restored after 30-40 h of incubation with amikacin. Both mechanisms may participate in the intracellular killing of bacteria. (+info)
(6/633) Effects of isolation housing and timing of drug administration on amikacin kinetics in mice.
AIM: To study the influences of social condition and drug administration time on amikacin metabolism in mice. METHODS: Forty Male ICR mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to 1) housing condition: individual housing (I, one mouse in a cage) or aggregated housing (A, 10 mice in a cage) and 2) drug administration time: at midday (D) or at midnight (N), i.e. I-D, I-N, A-D, and A-N groups. Amikacin was injected s.c. 15 mg.kg-1 after 4 wk of raising at D or N. Blood samples were taken at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 min after medication in each mouse. Plasma amikacin was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The concentration-time data were fitted with one-compartment open model in each mouse and data were analyzed with group t test. RESULTS: The clearance (Cl) of amikacin was larger and the half-life (T1/2) was shorter in A-N group than in A-D or I-N groups respectively. AUC(0-1) in A-N group was less than in I-N group. No differences of kinetic parameters between 2 isolated housing (I-D and I-N) groups were found. CONCLUSION: Aggregated housing and midnight drug administration increased the disposition of amikacin. (+info)
(7/633) Biological activity of netilmicin, a broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic.
Netilmicin (Sch 20569) is a new broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside derived from sisomicin. Netilmicin was compared to gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin in a variety of in vitro test systems as well as in mouse protection tests. Netilmicin was found to be similar in activity to gentamicin against aminoglycoside-susceptible strains in both in vitro and in vivo tests. Netilmicin was also active against many aminoglycoside-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria, particularly those known to possess adenylating enzymes (ANT 2') or those with a similar resistance pattern. Netilmicin was found to be markedly less toxic than gentamicin in chronic studies in cats, although gentamicin appeared less toxic in acute toxicity tests in mice. The concentrations of netilmicin and gentamicin in serum were compared in dogs after intramuscular dosing, and the pharmacokinetics including peak concentrations in serum were found to be similar. (+info)
(8/633) Randomized prospective study comparing cost-effectiveness of teicoplanin and vancomycin as second-line empiric therapy for infection in neutropenic patients.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The current health-care philosophy dictates that new therapies should always be evaluated for their economic impact. Along with acquisition cost, the cost of delivery, monitoring, adverse effects and treatment failure must also be considered when determining the total cost of therapy. These auxiliary costs can be significant and greatly alter the overall cost of a drug treatment. We conducted a prospective randomized study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost of vancomycin and teicoplanin therapy in patients with neutropenia, after the failure of empirical treatment with a combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventy-six febrile episodes from 66 patients with hematologic malignancies under treatment, neutropenia (neutrophils <500/mm3) and fever (38 degrees C twice or 38.5 degrees C once) resistant to the combination piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin were included in the study. RESULTS: Primary success of second-line therapy was obtained in 35 cases (46%) with no significant difference between vancomycin (17/38) and teicoplanin arms (18/38). No difference in renal or hepatic toxicity related to the antibiotic therapy was observed. The average cost per patient according to glycopeptide used was $450+/-180 for the teicoplanin group and $473+/-347 for the vancomycin group. Interestingly, in the teicoplanin arm, drug acquisition accounted for 97% of the total cost, while in the vancomycin arm administration and monitoring play an important role in overall costs. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our pharmacoeconomic analysis demonstrates that teicoplanin and vancomycin can be administered in neutropenic hematologic patients with similar efficacy and direct costs. (+info)