Follow-up of American Cancer Society Special Postdoctoral Research Fellowship recipients.
A follow-up study of the 44 recipients of American Cancer Society, Inc., Special Postdoctoral Research Fellowship from 1962 to 1973 revealed that 11 of 21 M.D. candidates obtained their second (Ph.D.) degree at the end of training. By contrast, all but one among the 23 Ph.D. candidates were awarded the second (M.D.) degree. A great majority of either group remain in active research, regardless of whether or not they obtained the second degree. A very high percentage of their research is cancer related. (+info)
Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1996, with a special section on lung cancer and tobacco smoking.
BACKGROUND: The American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), including the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), provide the second annual report to the nation on progress in cancer prevention and control, with a special section on lung cancer and tobacco smoking. METHODS: Age-adjusted rates (using the 1970 U.S. standard population) were based on cancer incidence data from NCI and underlying cause of death data compiled by NCHS. The prevalence of tobacco use was derived from CDC surveys. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: From 1990 through 1996, cancer incidence (-0.9% per year; P = .16) and cancer death (-0.6% per year; P = .001) rates for all sites combined decreased. Among the 10 leading cancer incidence sites, statistically significant decreases in incidence rates were seen in males for leukemia and cancers of the lung, colon/rectum, urinary bladder, and oral cavity and pharynx. Except for lung cancer, incidence rates for these cancers also declined in females. Among the 10 leading cancer mortality sites, statistically significant decreases in cancer death rates were seen for cancers of the male lung, female breast, the prostate, male pancreas, and male brain and, for both sexes, cancers of the colon/rectum and stomach. Age-specific analyses of lung cancer revealed that rates in males first declined at younger ages and then for each older age group successively over time; rates in females appeared to be in the early stages of following the same pattern, with rates decreasing for women aged 40-59 years. CONCLUSIONS: The declines in cancer incidence and death rates, particularly for lung cancer, are encouraging. However, unless recent upward trends in smoking among adolescents can be reversed, the lung cancer rates that are currently declining in the United States may rise again. (+info)
Great expectations: historical perspectives on genetic breast cancer testing.
Women who test positive for a genetic breast cancer marker may have more than a 50% chance of developing the disease. Although past screening technologies have sought to identify actual breast cancers, as opposed to predisposition, the history of screening may help predict the societal response to genetic testing. For decades, educational messages have encouraged women to find breast cancers as early as possible. Such messages have fostered the popular assumption that immediately discovered and treated breast cancers are necessarily more curable. Research, however, has shown that screening improves the prognosis of some--but not all--breast cancers, and also that it may lead to unnecessary interventions. The dichotomy between the advertised value of early detection and its actual utility has caused particular controversy in the United States, where the cultural climate emphasizes the importance of obtaining all possible medical information and acting on it. Early detection has probably helped to lower overall breast cancer mortality. But it has proven hard to praise aggressive screening without exaggerating its merits. Women considering genetic breast cancer testing should weight the benefits and limitations of early knowledge. (+info)
Intentional weight loss and mortality among overweight individuals with diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of intentional weight loss on mortality in overweight individuals with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis with a 12-year mortality follow-up (1959-1972) of 4,970 overweight individuals with diabetes, 40-64 years of age, who were enrolled in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study I. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated, comparing overall death rates, and death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes in individuals with and without reported intentional weight loss. RESULTS: Intentional weight loss was reported by 34% of the cohort. After adjustment for initial BMI, sociodemographic factors, health status, and physical activity, intentional weight loss was associated with a 25% reduction in total mortality (RR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.67-0.84), and a 28% reduction in CVD and diabetes mortality (RR = 0.72; 0.63-0.82). Intentional weight loss of 20-29 lb was associated with the largest reductions in mortality (approximately 33%). Weight loss >70 lb was associated with small increases in mortality CONCLUSIONS: Intentional weight loss was associated with substantial reductions in mortality in this observational study of overweight individuals with diabetes. (+info)
Passive smoking exposure and female breast cancer mortality.
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported positive associations between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and increased risk of breast cancer. However, studies of active smoking and risk of breast cancer are equivocal and in general do not support a positive association. To try to resolve this paradox, we examined the association between breast cancer mortality and potential ETS exposure from spousal smoking in an American Cancer Society prospective study of U.S. adult women. METHODS: We assessed breast cancer death rates in a cohort of 146 488 never-smoking, single-marriage women who were cancer free at enrollment in 1982. Breast cancer death rates among women whose husbands smoked were compared with those among women married to men who had never smoked. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to control for potential risk factors other than ETS exposure. RESULTS: After 12 years of follow-up, 669 cases of fatal breast cancer were observed in the cohort. Overall, we saw no association between exposure to ETS and death from breast cancer (rate ratio [RR] = 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8-1.2). We did, however, find a small, not statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer mortality among women who were married before age 20 years to smokers (RR = 1. 2; 95% CI = 0.8-1.8). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the results of previous studies, this study found no association between exposure to ETS and female breast cancer mortality. The results of our study are particularly compelling because of its prospective design as compared with most earlier studies, the relatively large number of exposed women with breast cancer deaths, and the reporting of exposure by the spouse rather than by proxy. (+info)
Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer (1973 through 1998), featuring cancers with recent increasing trends.
BACKGROUND: The American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), collaborate to provide an annual update on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This year's report contains a special feature that focuses on cancers with recent increasing trends. METHODS: From 1992 through 1998, age-adjusted rates and annual percent changes are calculated for cancer incidence and underlying cause of death with the use of NCI incidence and NCHS mortality data. Joinpoint analysis, a model of joined line segments, is used to examine long-term trends for the four most common cancers and for those cancers with recent increasing trends in incidence or mortality. Statistically significant findings are based on a P value of.05 by use of a two-sided test. State-specific incidence and death rates for 1994 through 1998 are reported for major cancers. RESULTS: From 1992 through 1998, total cancer death rates declined in males and females, while cancer incidence rates declined only in males. Incidence rates in females increased slightly, largely because of breast cancer increases that occurred in some older age groups, possibly as a result of increased early detection. Female lung cancer mortality, a major cause of death in women, continued to increase but more slowly than in earlier years. In addition, the incidence or mortality rate increased in 10 other sites, accounting for about 13% of total cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: Overall cancer incidence and death rates continued to decline in the United States. Future progress will require sustained improvements in cancer prevention, screening, and treatment. (+info)
The American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort: rationale, study design, and baseline characteristics.
BACKGROUND: Large-scale, prospective cohort studies have played a critical role in discovering factors that contribute to variability in cancer risk in human populations. Epidemiologists and volunteers at the American Cancer Society (ACS) were among the first to establish such cohorts, beginning in the early 1950s and continuing through the present, and these ACS cohorts have made landmark contributions in many areas of epidemiologic research. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort was established in 1992 and was designed to investigate the relation between diet and other lifestyle factors and exposures and the risk of cancer, mortality, and survival. The cohort includes over 84,000 men and 97,000 women who completed a mailed questionnaire in 1992. New questionnaires are sent to surviving cohort members every other year to update exposure information and to ascertain new occurrences of cancer; a 90% response rate was achieved for follow-up questionnaires in 1997 and 1999. Reported cancers are verified through medical records, registry linkage, or death certificates. The cohort is followed actively for all cases of incident cancer and for all causes of death. Through a collaborative effort among ACS national and division staff, volunteers, and the American College of Surgeons, blood samples were collected from a subgroup of 40,000 cohort members and are in storage at a central repository for future investigation of dietary, hormonal, genetic, and other factors and cancer risk. Collection of DNA samples from buccal cells in an additional 50,000 cohort members is underway currently and will be completed in 2002. CONCLUSIONS: This new cohort of both men and women promises to be particularly valuable for the study of cancer occurrence, mortality, and survival as they relate to obesity and weight change, physical activity at various points in life, vitamin supplement use, exogenous hormone use, other medications (such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs) and cancer screening modalities. (+info)
Alcohol, folate, methionine, and risk of incident breast cancer in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.
Recent studies suggest that the increased risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol consumption may be reduced by adequate folate intake. We examined this question among 66,561 postmenopausal women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 1,303 incident cases had accrued during the first 5 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models and stratified analysis were used to examine the relationship between alcohol, dietary and total folate intake, multivitamin use, dietary methionine, and breast cancer. We observed an increasing risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol consumption (P for trend = 0.01). In the highest category of consumption (15 or more grams of ethanol/day), the risk of breast cancer was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53) compared with nonusers. We observed this association with higher alcohol consumption for in situ, localized, and regional disease. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and dietary folate, total folate, multivitamin use, or methionine intake. Furthermore, we found no evidence of an interaction between levels of dietary folate (P for interaction = 0.10) or total folate (P for interaction = 0.61) and alcohol. Nor did we find evidence of an interaction between alcohol consumption and recent or long-term multivitamin use (P for interaction = 0.27). Our results are consistent with a positive association with alcohol but do not support an association with folate or methionine intake or an interaction between folate and alcohol intake on risk of breast cancer. (+info)