(1/291) Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni.

Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides.  (+info)

(2/291) Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus.

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

(3/291) Compliance and stability of the bronchial wall in a model of allergen-induced lung inflammation.

Airway wall remodeling in response to inflammation might alter load on airway smooth muscle and/or change airway wall stability. We therefore determined airway wall compliance and closing pressures in an animal model. Weanling pigs were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; ip and sc, n = 6) and were subsequently challenged three times with OVA aerosol. Control pigs received 0.9% NaCl (n = 4) in place of OVA aerosol. Bronchoconstriction in vivo was assessed from lung resistance and dynamic compliance. Semistatic airway compliance was recorded ex vivo in isolated segments of bronchus, after the final OVA aerosol or 0.9% NaCl challenge. Internally or externally applied pressure needed to close bronchial segments was determined in the absence or presence of carbachol (1 microM). Sensitized pig lungs exhibited immediate bronchoconstriction to OVA aerosol and also peribronchial accumulations of monocytes and granulocytes. Compliance was reduced in sensitized bronchi in vitro (P < 0.01), and closing pressures were increased (P < 0.05). In the presence of carbachol, closing pressures of control and sensitized bronchi were not different. We conclude that sensitization and/or inflammation increases airway load and airway stability.  (+info)

(4/291) Regulatory effects of endogenous protease inhibitors in acute lung inflammatory injury.

Inflammatory lung injury is probably regulated by the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors together with oxidants and antioxidants, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Rat tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2) and secreted leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) were cloned, expressed, and shown to be up-regulated at the levels of mRNA and protein during lung inflammation in rats induced by deposition of IgG immune complexes. Using immunoaffinity techniques, endogenous TIMP-2 in the inflamed lung was shown to exist as a complex with 72- and 92-kDa metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9). In inflamed lung both TIMP-2 and SLPI appeared to exist as enzyme inhibitor complexes. Lung expression of both TIMP-2 and SLPI appeared to involve endothelial and epithelial cells as well as macrophages. To assess how these endogenous inhibitors might affect the lung inflammatory response, animals were treated with polyclonal rabbit Abs to rat TIMP-2 or SLPI. This intervention resulted in significant intensification of lung injury (as revealed by extravascular leak of albumin) and substantially increased neutrophil accumulation, as determined by cell content in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. These events were correlated with increased levels of C5a-related chemotactic activity in BAL fluids, while BAL levels of TNF-alpha and chemokines were not affected by treatment with anti-TIMP-2 or anti-SLPI. The data suggest that endogenous TIMP-2 and SLPI dynamically regulate the intensity of lung inflammatory injury, doing so at least in part by affecting the generation of the inflammatory mediator, C5a.  (+info)

(5/291) Mycobacterium sp. as a possible cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in machine workers.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in workers exposed to metal removal fluids (MRFs) is increasing. This study supports the hypothesis that aerosolized mycobacteria colonizing the MRFs likely cause the disease. Three case studies of HP outbreaks among metal workers showed potentially high exposures to a rare and newly proposed Mycobacterium species. Retrospective review of samples submitted to our laboratory showed an association between presence of mycobacteria and HP.  (+info)

(6/291) Expression of mucosa-related integrin alphaEbeta7 on alveolar T cells in interstitial lung diseases.

The expression of alphaEbeta7 integrin has been related to the selective retention of lymphocytes in mucosal tissues of gut, urogenital tract and lung. To identify potential disease-associated alphaEbeta7 expression patterns on cells accounting for lymphocytic alveolitis in interstitial lung disease (ILD), alphaE expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets was evaluated by dual-colour flow cytometry in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n = 18), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; n = 20) and sarcoidosis (n = 44) in comparison with healthy controls (n = 15). In both healthy individuals and all patient groups the proportion of alphaE-bearing T cells in peripheral blood was < 2%, whereas the vast majority of alveolar CD8+ T cells consistently co-expressed alphaE. Absolute alveolar CD8+alphaE+ cell numbers/ml were up to 30-fold increased in HP patients. Proportions of alphaE-bearing CD4+ cells in BALF were significantly elevated in IPF (74.0 +/- 2.7%) and HP (70.0 +/- 2.4%) compared with normals (30.0 +/- 1.8%) (mean +/- s.e.m.; P < 0.01). In sarcoidosis, the alphaE expression on BALF CD4+ cells displayed subgroup dependency: proportions significantly lower than normal were noted in chest radiographic stage I (14.3 +/- 1.5%), but increased proportions in stages II (50.0 +/- 3.8%) and III (64.0 +/- 4.8%). Correlations between common markers of T cell activation or BALF transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta ) bioactivity and alphaE expression were not noted. We conclude that the vast majority of alveolar CD8+ T cells consistently express alphaEbeta7 and that distinct patterns of alphaEbeta7 expression on alveolar CD4+ lymphocytes in sarcoidosis are related to the diverse manifestations of the sarcoid inflammatory process in the lung.  (+info)

(7/291) Viral infection modulates expression of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a granulomatous, inflammatory lung disease caused by inhalation of organic Ags, most commonly thermophilic actinomycetes that cause farmer's lung disease. The early response to Ag is an increase in neutrophils in the lung, whereas the late response is a typical Th1-type granulomatous disease. Many patients who develop disease report a recent viral respiratory infection. These studies were undertaken to determine whether viruses can augment the inflammatory responses in HP. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the thermophilic bacteria Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (SR) for 3 consecutive days per wk for 3 wk. Some mice were exposed to SR at 2 wk after infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), whereas others were exposed to SR after exposure to saline alone or to heat-inactivated RSV. SR-treated mice developed a typical, early neutrophil response and a late granulomatous inflammatory response. Up-regulation of IFN-gamma and IL-2 gene expression was also found during the late response. These responses were augmented by recent RSV infection but not by heat-inactivated RSV. Mice with a previous RSV infection also had a greater early neutrophil response to SR, with increased macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2, murine equivalent of IL-8) release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These studies suggest that viral infection can augment both the early and late inflammatory responses in HP.  (+info)

(8/291) Polarized type 1 cytokine profile in bronchoalveolar lavage T cells of patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is characterized by an inflammatory lymphocytic alveolitis comprised of both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Animal models suggest that HP is facilitated by overproduction of IFN-gamma, and that IL-10 ameliorates severity of the disease, indicating a Th1-type response. To determine whether a Th1 phenotype in HP also exists clinically, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood (PB) T cells were obtained from HP individuals and analyzed for Th1 vs Th2 cytokine profiles. It was determined that soluble OKT3-stimulated BAL T cells cocultured with alveolar macrophages produced more IFN-gamma and less IL-10 than PB T cells cocultured with monocytes, but no difference was observed in IL-4 production. The monocytic cells did not account for this difference, as CD80 and CD86 expressions were similar, and coculturing PB T cells with alveolar macrophages resulted in no difference in IFN-gamma production. Similarly, there was no difference in IL-12 production between stimulated BAL or PB T cells; however, addition of rIL-12 significantly increased production of IFN-gamma by BAL T cells, but not by PB T cells. This effect was due to a difference in IL-12R expression. High affinity IL-12R were only present in association with BAL T cells. These studies indicate that clinical HP is characterized by a predominance of IFN-gamma-producing T cells, perhaps resulting from a reduction in IL-10 production and an increase in high affinity IL-12R compared with blood T cells.  (+info)