The effect of motility and cell-surface polymers on bacterial attachment.
Recently it was shown that motility of Vibrio alginolyticus facilitated cell attachment to glass surfaces. In the present study the same relationship between motility and cell attachment was confirmed for Alcaligenes and Alteromonas spp. These findings clearly answer a long-standing question: does motility facilitate attachment? However, they are contradictory to a general view on cell attachment that the energy barrier due to electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged bacterial cells and a glass surface is much greater than both the thermal kinetic energy of the bacterial cell and the bacterial swimming energy. It is shown that the energy barrier becomes far less than that usually estimated when bacterial cells are rich in polymers at their surfaces. This finding reasonably explains the dependence of bacterial attachment rate on cell motility and demands reconsideration of the mechanism of bacterial attachment. (+info)
Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase that is induced by growing Alteromonas sp. Strain KE10 in a low concentration of organic nutrients.
The protein composition of Alteromonas sp. strain KE10 cultured at two different organic-nutrient concentrations was determined by using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The cellular levels of three proteins, OlgA, -B, and -C, were considerably higher in cells grown in a low concentration of organic nutrient medium (LON medium; 0.2 mg of carbon per liter) than cells grown in a high concentration of organic nutrient medium (HON; 200 mg of C liter(-1)) or cells starved for organic nutrients. In the LON medium, the cellular levels of the Olg proteins were higher at the exponential growth phase than at the stationary growth phase. A sequence of the gene for OlgA revealed that the amino acid sequence had a high degree of similarity to the NAD(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases of several bacteria. OlgA, expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyzed the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The aldehyde dehydrogenase activity of KE10 was higher in cells growing exponentially in LON medium than in HON. OlgA may be involved in the growth under low-nutrient conditions. The physiological role of OlgA is discussed here. (+info)
Reclassification of Alteromonas distincta Romanenko et al. 1995 as Pseudoalteromonas distincta comb. nov.
The 16S rRNA gene of Alteromonas distincta KMM 638T was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence was aligned with sequences of representative strains of Alteromonas, Moritella, Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella. Results of phylogenetic analysis, using neighbour-joining and Fitch-Margoliash methods, clearly indicated that this species should be assigned to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. On the basis of polyphasic data obtained from previous work and this study, it is proposed that the species Alteromonas distincta be reclassified as Pseudoalteromonas distincta comb. nov. with type strain KMM 638T (= ATCC 700518T). (+info)
Assignment of Alteromonas elyakovii KMM 162T and five strains isolated from spot-wounded fronds of Laminaria japonica to Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii comb. nov. and the extended description of the species.
A marine bacterium, Alteromonas elyakovii KMM 162T, which was described recently, and five strains isolated from spot-wounded fronds of Laminaria japonica have been subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and geno- and phenotypic characterization. The phenotypic features of Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii strains were closely related to that of Pseudoalteromonas espejiana IAM 12640T, but utilization of three carbon compounds (D-mannose, L-tyrosine and trehalose) distinguished both species. The G+C content of Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii was between 38.5 and 38.9 mol%. Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii KMM 162T and the five Laminaria isolates constitute a single species different from any other Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas species as revealed by DNA-DNA hybridization data, especially Pseudoalteromonas distincta KMM 638T (52.4%), Pseudoalteromonas citrea KMM 216 (49.5%), Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora NCIMB 302T (46.9%) and Pseudoalteromonas espejiana IAM 12640T (29.9%). All the data indicated that Alteromonas elyakovii KMM 162T should be reclassified as Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii and five strains isolated from Laminaria japonica have to be included in the species. Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii comb. nov. (type strain, KMM 162T = ATCC 700519T) is proposed and a set of phenotypic features which differentiate the Pseudoalteromonas species is described. (+info)
A DNA ligase from the psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis gives insights into the adaptation of proteins to low temperatures.
The cloning, overexpression and characterization of a cold-adapted DNA ligase from the Antarctic sea water bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis are described. Protein sequence analysis revealed that the cold-adapted Ph DNA ligase shows a significant level of sequence similarity to other NAD+-dependent DNA ligases and contains several previously described sequence motifs. Also, a decreased level of arginine and proline residues in Ph DNA ligase could be involved in the cold-adaptation strategy. Moreover, 3D modelling of the N-terminal domain of Ph DNA ligase clearly indicates that this domain is destabilized compared with its thermophilic homologue. The recombinant Ph DNA ligase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mass spectroscopy experiments indicated that the purified enzyme is mainly in an adenylated form with a molecular mass of 74 593 Da. Ph DNA ligase shows similar overall catalytic properties to other NAD+-dependent DNA ligases but is a cold-adapted enzyme as its catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) at low and moderate temperatures is higher than that of its mesophilic counterpart E. coli DNA ligase. A kinetic comparison of three enzymes adapted to different temperatures (P. haloplanktis, E. coli and Thermus scotoductus DNA ligases) indicated that an increased kcat is the most important adaptive parameter for enzymatic activity at low temperatures, whereas a decreased Km for the nicked DNA substrate seems to allow T. scotoductus DNA ligase to work efficiently at high temperatures. Besides being useful for investigation of the adaptation of enzymes to extreme temperatures, P. haloplanktis DNA ligase, which is very efficient at low temperatures, offers a novel tool for biotechnology. (+info)
Differentiation of chitinase-active and non-chitinase-active subpopulations of a marine bacterium during chitin degradation.
The ability of marine bacteria to adhere to detrital particulate organic matter and rapidly switch on metabolic genes in an effort to reproduce is an important response for bacterial survival in the pelagic marine environment. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between chitinolytic gene expression and extracellular chitinase activity in individual cells of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 attached to solid chitin. A green fluorescent protein reporter gene under the control of the chiA promoter was used to evaluate chiA gene expression, and a precipitating enzyme-linked fluorescent probe, ELF-97-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide, was used to evaluate extracellular chitinase activity among cells in the bacterial population. Evaluation of chiA expression and ELF-97 crystal location at the single-cell level revealed two physiologically distinct subpopulations of S91 on the chitin surface: one that was chitinase active and remained associated with the surface and another that was non-chitinase active and released daughter cells into the bulk aqueous phase. It is hypothesized that the surface-associated, non-chitinase-active population is utilizing chitin degradation products that were released by the adjacent chitinase-active population for cell replication and dissemination into the bulk aqueous phase. (+info)
Spatial and temporal variations in chitinolytic gene expression and bacterial biomass production during chitin degradation.
Growth of the chitin-degrading marine bacterium S91 on solid surfaces under oligotrophic conditions was accompanied by the displacement of a large fraction of the surface-derived bacterial production into the flowing bulk aqueous phase, irrespective of the value of the surface as a nutrient source. Over a 200-h period of surface colonization, 97 and 75% of the bacterial biomass generated on biodegradable chitin and a nonnutritional silicon surface, respectively, detached to become part of the free-living population in the bulk aqueous phase. Specific surface-associated growth rates that included the cells that subsequently detached from the substrata varied depending on the nutritional value of the substratum and during the period of surface colonization. Specific growth rates of 3.79 and 2.83 day(-1) were obtained when cells first began to proliferate on a pure chitin film and a silicon surface, respectively. Later, when cell densities on the surface and detached cells as CFU in the bulk aqueous phase achieved a quasi-steady state, specific growth rates decreased to 1.08 and 0.79 day(-1) on the chitin and silicon surfaces, respectively. Virtually all of the cells that detached from either the chitin or the silicon surfaces and the majority of cells associated with the chitin surface over the 200-h period of surface colonization displayed no detectable expression of the chitin-degrading genes chiA and chiB. Cells displaying high levels of chiA-chiB expression were detected only on the chitin surface and then only clustered in discrete areas of the surface. Surface-associated, differential gene expression and displacement of bacterial production from surfaces represent adaptations at the population level that promote efficient utilization of limited resources and dispersal of progeny to maximize access to new sources of energy and maintenance of the population. (+info)
A serine protease-encoding gene (aprII) of Alteromonas sp. Strain O-7 is regulated by the iron uptake regulator (Fur) protein.
The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) box-like sequence was located upstream of the serine protease-encoding gene (aprII) from a marine bacterium, Alteromonas sp. strain O-7. To clarify whether the production of AprII (the gene product of aprII) is regulated by the environmental iron concentrations, this strain was cultured under iron-depleted or iron-rich conditions and the level of AprII in the culture supernatant was analyzed by Western blotting. The production of AprII was significantly repressed under iron-rich conditions. Northern hybridization analysis demonstrated that AprII biosynthesis was regulated by iron through the control of transcription. These results indicate that aprII is a new member of the iron regulon and plays an important role in the iron acquisition system of the strain. Furthermore, the gene encoding Fur was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned Fur showed high sequence similarity with that from gram-negative bacteria. (+info)