The extracellular matrix in the mouse brain: its reactions to endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase and certain other enzymes.
As our previous studies have indicated, the cingulate cortex of the adult mouse brain contains many neurons with rich cell surface glycoproteins which are linked by collagenous ligands to perineuronal proteoglycans. The present study demonstrated that exclusive incubation with endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase abolished the lectin Vicia villosa or Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (VVA or WFA) labeling of the nerve cell surface glycoproteins, while it neither interfered with the cationic iron colloid or aldehyde fuchsin stainings of the perineuronal proteoglycans nor abolished the Gomori's ammoniacal silver impregnation of the collagenous ligands. Double incubations with endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase and collagenase did not eliminate the lectin VVA or WFA labeling of the nerve cell surface glycoproteins, though they did eliminate the cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin stainings of the perineuronal proteoglycans as well as the Gomori's ammoniacal silver impregnation of the collagenous ligands. Triple incubations with endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, collagenase, and endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase abolished the lectin VVA or WFA labeling of the nerve cell surface glycoproteins, and also eliminated the cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin stainings of the perineuronal proteoglycans and the Gomori's ammoniacal silver impregnation of the collagenous ligands. These findings indicate that: the nerve cell surface glycoproteins or their terminal N-acetylgalactosamines are digested by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase; these galactosamines associated with the collagenous ligands or perineuronal proteoglycans are not digested by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase; and the terminal N-acetylgalactosamines newly exposed by collagenase incubation are digested by this galactosaminidase. It was further demonstrated that hyaluronidase incubation neither digests the collagenous ligands nor revives the lectin VVA or WFA labeling of the nerve cell surface proteoglycans. (+info)
Glycoprotein lysosomal storage disorders: alpha- and beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency.
Glycoproteinoses belong to the lysosomal storage disorders group. The common feature of these diseases is the deficiency of a lysosomal protein that is part of glycan catabolism. Most of the lysosomal enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of glycoprotein carbohydrate chains are exo-glycosidases, which stepwise remove terminal monosaccharides. Thus, the deficiency of a single enzyme causes the blockage of the entire pathway and induces a storage of incompletely degraded substances inside the lysosome. Different mutations may be observed in a single disease and in all cases account for the nonexpression of lysosomal glycosidase activity. Different clinical phenotypes generally characterize a specific disorder, which rather must be described as a continuum in severity, suggesting that other biochemical or environmental factors influence the course of the disease. This review provides details on clinical features, genotype-phenotype correlations, enzymology and biochemical storage of four human glycoprotein lysosomal storage disorders, respectively alpha- and beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency. Moreover, several animal disorders of glycoprotein metabolism have been found and constitute valuable models for the understanding of their human counterparts. (+info)
Human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase: site occupancy and structure of N-linked oligosaccharides.
Human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-GalNAc; also known as alpha-galactosidase B) is the lysosomal exoglycohydrolase that cleaves alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyl moieties in glycoconjugates. Mutagenesis studies indicated that the first five (N124, N177, N201, N359, and N385) of the six potential N-glycosylation sites were occupied. Site 3 occupancy was important for enzyme function and stability. Characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharide structures on the secreted enzyme overexpressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed highly heterogeneous structures consisting of complex (approximately 53%), hybrid (approximately 12%), and high mannose-type (approximately 33%) oligosaccharides. The complex structures were mono-, bi-, 2,4-tri-, 2,6-tri-, and tetraantennary, among which the biantennary structures were most predominant (approximately 53%). Approximately 80% of the complex oligo-saccharides had a core-region fucose and 50% of the complex oligosaccharides were sialylated exclusively with alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid residues. The majority of hybrid type oligo-saccharides were GalGlcNAcMan(6)GlcNAc-Fuc(0-1)GlcNAc. Approximately 54% of the hybrid oligosaccharide were phosphorylated and one-third of these structures were further sialylated, the latter representing unique phosphorylated and sialylated structures. Of the high mannose oligosaccharides, Man(5-7)GlcNAc(2) were the predominant species (approximately 90%) and about 50% of the high mannose oligosaccharides were phosphorylated, exclusively as monoesters whose positions were determined. Comparison of the oligosaccharide structures of alpha-GalNAc and alpha-galactosidase A, an evolutionary-related and highly homologous exoglycosidase, indicated that alpha-GalNAc had more completed complex chains, presumably due to differences in enzyme structure/domains, rate of biosynthesis, and/or aggregation of the overexpressed recombinant enzymes. (+info)
Blood group A antigen is a coreceptor in Plasmodium falciparum rosetting.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum utilizes molecules present on the surface of uninfected red blood cells (RBC) for rosette formation, and a dependency on ABO antigens has been previously shown. In this study, the antirosetting effect of immune sera was related to the blood group of the infected human host. Sera from malaria-immune blood group A (or B) individuals were less prone to disrupt rosettes from clinical isolates of blood group A (or B) patients than to disrupt rosettes from isolates of blood group O patients. All fresh clinical isolates and laboratory strains exhibited distinct ABO blood group preferences, indicating that utilization of blood group antigens is a general feature of P. falciparum rosetting. Soluble A antigen strongly inhibited rosette formation when the parasite was cultivated in A RBC, while inhibition by glycosaminoglycans decreased. Furthermore, a soluble A antigen conjugate bound to the cell surface of parasitized RBC. Selective enzymatic digestion of blood group A antigen from the uninfected RBC surfaces totally abolished the preference of the parasite to form rosettes with these RBC, but rosettes could still form. Altogether, present data suggest an important role for A and B antigens as coreceptors in P. falciparum rosetting. (+info)
Adhesion of human lung mast cells to bronchial epithelium: evidence for a novel carbohydrate-mediated mechanism.
Mast cells contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma through their immunomediator-secretory activity in response to both immunological and nonimmunological stimuli, and infiltrate the bronchial epithelium in this disease. We hypothesized that human lung mast cells (HLMC) localize to the bronchial epithelium via a specific cell-cell adhesion mechanism. We investigated the adhesion of HLMC to primary bronchial epithelial cells and the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. HLMC adhered avidly to both primary cultures of bronchial epithelial cells and BEAS-2B cells (mean adhesion 68.4 and 60.1%, respectively) compared with eosinophil adhesion to BEAS-2B (mean adhesion 10.3%). HLMC adhesion did not alter after epithelial activation with cytokines, did not require Ca2+, and was not integrin-mediated. IgE-dependent activation of HLMC produced an approximately 40% inhibition of adhesion. There was significant attenuation of adhesion after incubation of HLMC with pronase, beta-galactosidase, and endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, indicating that HLMC adhere to bronchial epithelial cells via galactose-bearing carbohydrates expressed on a cell-surface peptide(s). (+info)
Trypsin inhibitory activity of bovine fetuin de-O-glycosylated by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase.
The effects of bovine fetuin O-glycans on its trypsin inhibitory activity were examined. De-sialylated (asialo-) and de-O-glycosylated fetuin were prepared from native fetuin using Arthrobacter neuraminidase and the mixture of it and Bacillus endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, respectively. De-sialylation and de-O-glycosylation from fetuin were confirmed with SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting using anti-human Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T antigen) antibody which recognizes O-linked galactosyl beta1,3 N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal beta1-->3GalNAc). Native fetuin completely inhibited the trypsin activity at about a 1:1 molar ratio. In contrast, the trypsin inhibitory activity of asialo- and de-O-glycosylated fetuin decreased about a half and one-third of that of native fetuin, respectively. (+info)
Human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGA) deficiency: no association with neuroaxonal dystrophy?
Two new individuals with alpha-NAGA deficiency are presented. The index patient, 3 years old, has congenital cataract, slight motor retardation and secondary demyelinisation. Screening of his sibs revealed an alpha-NAGA deficiency in his 7-year-old healthy brother who had no clinical or neurological symptoms. Both sibs are homozygous for the E325K mutation, the same genotype that was found in the most severe form of alpha-NAGA deficiency presenting as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Thus, at the age of 7 years the same genotype of alpha-NAGA may present as a 'non-disease' (present healthy case) and can be associated with the vegetative state (the first two patients described with alpha-NAGA deficiency). The clinical heterogeneity among the 11 known individuals with alpha-NAGA deficiency is extreme, with a 'non-disease' (two cases) and infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (two cases) at the opposite sides of the clinical spectrum. The broad spectrum is completed by a very heterogeneous group of patients with various degrees of epilepsy/behavioural difficulties/psychomotor retardation (four patients) and a mild phenotype in adults without overt neurological manifestations who have angiokeratoma and clear vacuolisation in various cell types (three cases). These observations are difficult to reconcile with a straightforward genotype-phenotype correlation and suggest that factors or genes other than alpha-NAGA contribute to the clinical heterogeneity of the 11 patients with alpha-NAGA deficiency. (+info)
Efficient synthesis of O-linked glycopeptide by a transglycosylation using endo alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Streptomyces sp.
Gal beta-(1-->3)-GalNAc-linked hexapeptide was synthesized by a transglycosylation using Gal beta-(1-->3)-GalNAc beta-pNP as a donor and a serine-containing hexapeptide as an acceptor using endo GalNAc-ase from Streptomyces sp.. The Gal beta-(1-->3)-GalNAc residue was transferred to the hydroxyl group of the serine residue of the peptide. The total yield of the glycopeptide via this process was better than that of the chemoenzymatic method. This process was confirmed to be a versatile method for the synthesis of O-linked glycopeptides. (+info)