Endometrial lysosomal enzyme activity in normal cycling endometrium.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible role of four lysosomal enzymes in endometrial function and remodelling during the normal menstrual cycle by fluorimetric measurement (acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-D-mannosidase). A prospective study was conducted of 45 endometrial biopsies obtained from women with normal menstrual cycles. Activity of all four enzymes was identified in human endometrium. Activity of acid phosphatase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase was relatively high, whilst that of alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-D-mannosidase was low. There was no significant change in the activity of any of the four enzymes from the proliferative to the secretory phase of the cycle. This study suggests that the activity of these enzymes remains constant throughout a major portion of the normal cycle. (+info)
Characterization of human semen alpha-L-fucosidases.
Human semen contains a large amount of alpha-L-fucosidase activity, the great majority of which is found in the seminal fluid. Immunocytochemical studies indicate that a small amount of semen fucosidase activity is present on the sperm plasma membrane, primarily in the posterior head region. Subcellular fractionation studies also indicate that sperm alpha-L-fucosidase is present in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction. Comparative characterization of human seminal fluid and sperm alpha-L-fucosidases indicates that seminal fluid alpha-L-fucosidase has a broad pH optimum curve with a number of near-equal maxima between pH 4.8 and 7.0 while sperm fucosidase has a major optimum between pH 3.4 and 4.0. Isoelectric focusing indicates that seminal fluid alpha-L-fucosidase contains three to six isoforms with isoelectric points (pI) of 5-7 while sperm fucosidase contains two distinct isoforms with pI values of 5. 2 +/- 0.2 and 7.0 +/- 0.2. Western blotting indicates that seminal fluid fucosidase contains a major protein band with a molecular mass ratio (M(r)) of approximately 56 kDa while sperm fucosidase contains a major protein band of approximately 51 kDa. The overall results indicate the presence of a low-abundance, plasma membrane-associated human sperm alpha-L-fucosidase, which is different in its properties from human seminal fluid alpha-L-fucosidase(s), and whose function is not yet known. (+info)
Fucose in alpha(1-6)-linkage regulates proliferation and histogenesis in reaggregated retinal spheroids of the chick embryo.
We have used the lectin from Aleuria aurantia (AAL) which is highly specific for alpha(1-6)-linked fucose, to examine its effect on chicken retinogenesis in a reaggregation culture system. When dispersed cells of the embryonic chick retina are reaggregated to form histotypic retinospheroids, AAL elicits strong inhibition of spheroid growth. The action of AAL is specific, since its effect is dose-dependent, saturable, and inhibited by an excess of fucose. Fucosidase treatment entirely abolishes reaggregation. In contrast, Anguilla anguilla agglutinin (AAA) binding to fucose in alpha(1-2)-linkage does not show any effects. Incubation with CAB4-a specific monoclonal antibody for fucose in alpha(1-6)-linkage-reduces spheroid size and shape. AAL does not much affect primary aggregation, but rather subsequent processes of cell proliferation and histogenesis. In particular, AAL inhibits uptake of bromo-desoxyuridine (BrdU), most efficiently so during days in vitro 2 (div2) and div3. As a consequence, the histological differentiation is entirely disturbed, as evidenced by vimentin immunostaining; particularly, rosettes are not forming and the radial glia scaffold is disorganized. We conclude that glycoproteins exhibiting fucose in alpha(1-6)-linkage may play major roles in early processes of retinal tissue formation. (+info)
Glycosylation alterations of cells in late phase apoptosis from colon carcinomas.
Comparisons of carbohydrate profiles between control and apoptotic colon carcinoma cells were performed by flow cytometry using a set of lectins and anti-carbohydrate antibodies. The six cell lines analyzed presented distinct carbohydrate profiles before induction of apoptosis. PHA-L and MAA binding decreased after induction of apoptosis by UV-treatment. In contrast an increase of PNA binding was observed after induction of apoptosis, except on SW-48 cells for which a decrease occurred. A decrease of SNA binding was observed after induction of apoptosis from strongly positive control cell lines, whereas it increased on weakly positive ones. All the blood group related antigens A, H, Lewis a, Lewis x, Lewis b, and Lewis y, had their expression strongly diminished on apoptotic cells. These changes occurred irrespective of the mode of apoptosis induction since similar results were obtained after UV, TNFalpha, or anti-Fas treatment. Fucosyltransferases activities were also decreased after apoptosis induction, except for alpha1,3fucosyltransferase in anti-Fas treated HT-29 cells, where it was strongly augmented. This could be attributed to the IFNgamma preteatment required to induce Fas expression on these cells. Fucosidase activity decreased after induction of apoptosis suggesting that it was not responsible for the loss of fucosylated structures. In the rat PRO cell line, H blood group antigens are mainly carried by a high molecular weight variant of CD44. It could be shown that the loss of H antigen after induction of apoptosis correlated with a loss of the carrier glycoprotein. (+info)
Terminal glycosylation in cystic fibrosis.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease for which the gene was identified within the last decade. Pulmonary disease predominates in this ultimately fatal disease and current therapy only slows the progression. CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR), the gene product, is an integral membrane glycoprotein that normally functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells. The most common mutation, deltaF508, results in mislocalization and altered glycosylation of CFTR. Altered fucosylation and sialylation are hallmarks of both membrane and secreted glycoproteins in CF and the focus here is on these investigations. Oligosaccharides from CF membrane glycoproteins have the Lewis x, selectin ligand in terminal positions. In addition, two major bacterial pathogens in CF, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae, have binding proteins, which recognize fucose in alpha1,3 linkage and asialoglycoconjugates. We speculate that the altered terminal glycosylation of airway epithelial glycoproteins in CF contributes to the chronic infection and robust inflammatory response in the CF lung. Understanding the effects of mutant CFTR on glycosylation may provide further insight into the regulation of glycoconjugate processing as well as therapy for CF. (+info)
Prediction of the development of hepato-cellular-carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis by the serial determinations of serum alpha-L-fucosidase activity.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the usefulness of the serial determinations of serum alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) activity for prediction of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was performed. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Serum AFU activity was determined monthly for 42 months in 73 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). RESULTS: HCC was diagnosed in 27 patients by means of ultrasonography during this observation period. In 23 (85%) of the 27 patients, serum AFU activity was found to exceed 700 nmole/ml/h during the LC stage. HCC developed within a few years in 23 (82%) of 28 LC patients with AFU activity exceeding 700 nmole/ml/h, in contrast, it developed in only 4 (9%) of 45 LC patients with AFU activity below 700 nmole/ml/h. AFU activity was already elevated in 23 (85%) of 27 patients at least 6 months before the detection of HCC by ultrasonography. CONCLUSION: It is conceivable that the development of HCC can be predicted by means of serial determinations of serum AFU activity in patients with LC. (+info)
Endometrial lysosomal enzyme activity in ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding, IUCD users and post-partum women.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of lysosomal enzymes in excessively heavy menstruation by comparing women with menorrhagia due to dysfunctional bleeding or intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) use with those with normal menstrual periods or with amenorrhoea associated with breastfeeding. This was a prospective cohort investigation of the activity of four endometrial lysosomal enzymes in three contrasting groups: (i) women with ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding and users of intrauterine contraceptive devices; (ii) breastfeeding post-partum women in whom there are long periods of amenorrhoea, particularly in the early months post-partum; and (iii) normal cycling women. It was found that the total activity of lysosomal enzymes, particularly acid phosphatase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, was markedly elevated (P < 0.001) in IUCD-exposed endometrium, and endometrium from women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding when compared with endometrium from women with a history of entirely normal menstrual periods or that in post-partum breastfeeding women. The activity of alpha-L-fucosidase was moderately elevated in IUCD users (P < 0.05) and ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding (P < 0.05), whereas alphaD-mannosidase activity was elevated in ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding (P < 0.05), but decreased in IUCD users (P < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the lysosomal enzyme activities of breastfeeding post-partum women and normal cycling women. These results show that total endometrial tissue activity of four lysosomal enzymes was substantially increased throughout the cycle in most circumstances in women with two different causes for increased menstrual bleeding. This suggests a contributory role to the increased bleeding. (+info)
Sequence and expression of Thai Rosewood beta-glucosidase/beta-fucosidase, a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase glycoprotein.
Dalcochinin-8'-O-beta-glucoside beta-glucosidase (dalcochinase) from the Thai rosewood (Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre) has aglycone specificity for isoflavonoids and can hydrolyze both beta-glucosides and beta-fucosides. To determine its structure and evolutionary lineage, the sequence of the enzyme was determined by peptide sequencing followed by PCR cloning. The cDNA included a reading frame coding for 547 amino acids including a 23 amino acid propeptide and a 524 amino acid mature protein. The sequences determined at peptide level were found in the cDNA sequence, indicating the sequence obtained was indeed the dalcochinase enzyme. The mature enzyme is 60% identical to the cyanogenic beta-glucosidase from white clover glycosyl hydrolase family 1, for which an X-ray crystal structure has been solved. Based on this homology, residues which may contribute to the different substrate specificities of the two enzymes were identified. Eight putative glycosylation sites were identified, and one was confirmed to be glycosylated by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. The protein was expressed as a prepro-alpha-mating factor fusion in Pichia pastoris, and the activity of the secreted enzyme was characterized. The recombinant enzyme and the enzyme purified from seeds showed the same K(m) for pNP-glucoside and pNP-fucoside, had the same ratio of V(max) for these substrates, and similarly hydrolyzed the natural substrate, dalcochinin-8'-beta-glucoside. (+info)