Allosteric regulation of even-skipped repression activity by phosphorylation.
The Drosophila homeodomain protein Even-skipped (Eve) is a well characterized transcriptional repressor. Here, we show that Eve's ability to function in vitro is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. DNA-binding activity was unaffected by phosphorylation, but phosphorylated Eve was unable to interact with the TATA-binding protein (TBP), a known target for repression. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation of the Eve N terminus, which is dispensable for repression and TBP binding, was necessary and sufficient to inactivate Eve. LiCl, which specifically inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), reduced Eve phosphorylation in nuclear extract and blocked inhibition of repression. In addition, Eve was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified GSK-3 beta plus casein kinase II. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of transcriptional control involving phosphorylation-induced allosteric interference with a repressive protein-protein interaction. (+info)
Regulation of AMP deaminase from chicken erythrocytes. A kinetic study of the allosteric interactions.
The allosteric properties of AMP deaminase [EC 126.96.36.199] from chicken erythrocytes have been qualitatively and quantitatively accounted for by the concerted transition theory of Monod et al., on the assumption that this enzyme has different numbers of binding sites for each ligand. Theoretical curves yield a satisfactory fit for all experimental saturation functions with respect to activation by alkali metals and inhibition by Pi, assuming that the numbers of binding sites for AMP, alkali metals, and Pi are 4, 2, and 4, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by concentrations of ATP and GTP below 0.1 and 0.25 mM, respectively, whereas activation of the enzyme was observed at ATP and GTP concentrations above 0.4 and 1.5 mM, respectively. These unusual kinetics with respect to ATP and GTP could be also accounted for by assuming 2 inhibitory and 4 activating sites for each ligand. (+info)
An allosteric synthetic DNA.
Allosteric DNA oligonucleotides are potentially useful diagnostic reagents. Here we develop a model system for the study of allosteric interactions in DNAs. A DNA that binds either Cibacron blue or cholic acid was isolated and partially characterized. Isolation was performed using a multi-stage SELEX. First, short oligos that bind either Cibacron blue or cholic acid were enriched from random oligonucleotide pools. Then, members of the two pools were fused to form longer oligos, which were then selected for theability to bind Cibacron blue columns and elute with cholic acid. One resulting isolate (A22) was studied. Dye- and cholate-binding functions can be separated on sequences from the 5'- and 3'-regions, respectively. Ligand-column affinity assays indicate that each domain binds only its respective ligand. However, the full-length A22 will bind either dye or cholate columns and elute with the other ligand, as if binding by the ligands is mutually exclusive. Furthermore, S1 nuclease protection assays show that Cibacron blue causes a structural change in A22 and that cholic acid inhibits this change. This system will be useful for elucidating mechanisms of allosteric interactions in synthetic DNAs. (+info)
Heterotropic effectors exert more significant strain on monoligated than on unligated hemoglobin.
The effect of allosteric effectors, such as inositol hexakisphosphate and/or bezafibrate, has been investigated on the unliganded human adult hemoglobin both spectroscopically (employing electronic absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopies) and functionally (following the kinetics of the first CO binding step up to a final 4% ligand saturation degree). All data indicate that the unliganded T-state is not perturbed by the interaction with either one or both effectors, suggesting that their functional influence is only exerted when a ligand molecule is bound to the heme. This is confirmed by the observation that CO dissociation from partially liganded hemoglobin ( +info)
Dual allosteric modulation of pacemaker (f) channels by cAMP and voltage in rabbit SA node.
1. A Monod-Whyman-Changeux (MWC) allosteric reaction model was used in the attempt to describe the dual activation of 'pacemaker' f-channel gating subunits by voltage hyperpolarization and cyclic nucleotides. Whole-channel kinetics were described by assuming that channels are composed of two identical subunits gated independently according to the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) equations. 2. The simple assumption that cAMP binding favours open channels was found to readily explain induction of depolarizing voltage shifts of open probability with a sigmoidal dependence on agonist concentration. 3. Voltage shifts of open probability were measured against cAMP concentration in macropatches of sino-atrial (SA) node cells; model fitting of dose-response relations yielded dissociation constants of 0.0732 and 0.4192 microM for cAMP binding to open and closed channels, respectively. The allosteric model correctly predicted the modification of the pacemaker current (If) time constant curve induced by 10 microM cAMP (13.7 mV depolarizing shift). 4. cAMP shifted deactivation more than activation rate constant curves, according to sigmoidal dose-response relations (maximal shifts of +22.3 and +13.4 mV at 10 microM cAMP, respectively); this feature was fully accounted for by allosteric interactions, and indicated that cAMP acts primarily by 'locking' f-channels in the open configuration. 5. These results provide an interpretation of the dual voltage- and cyclic nucleotide- dependence of f-channel activation. (+info)
Coupling of the oxygen-linked interaction energy for inositol hexakisphosphate and bezafibrate binding to human HbA0.
The energetics of signal propagation between different functional domains (i.e. the binding sites for O2, inositol hexakisphospate (IHP), and bezafibrate (BZF)) of human HbA0 was analyzed at different heme ligation states and through the use of a stable, partially heme ligated intermediate. Present data allow three main conclusions to be drawn, and namely: (i) IHP and BZF enhance each others binding as the oxygenation proceeds, the coupling free energy going from close to zero in the deoxy state to -3.4 kJ/mol in the oxygenated form; (ii) the simultaneous presence of IHP and BZF stabilizes the hemoglobin T quaternary structure at very low O2 pressures, but as oxygenation proceeds it does not impair the transition toward the R structure, which indeed occurs also under these conditions; (iii) under room air pressure (i.e. pO2 = 150 torr), IHP and BZF together induce the formation of an asymmetric dioxygenated hemoglobin tetramer, whose features appear reminiscent of those suggested for transition state species (i.e. T- and R-like tertiary conformation(s) within a quaternary R-like structure). (+info)
Allosteric control of three B12-dependent (class II) ribonucleotide reductases. Implications for the evolution of ribonucleotide reduction.
Three separate classes of ribonucleotide reductases are known, each with a distinct protein structure. One common feature of all enzymes is that a single protein generates each of the four deoxyribonucleotides. Class I and III enzymes contain an allosteric substrate specificity site capable of binding effectors (ATP or various deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates) that direct enzyme specificity. Some (but not all) enzymes contain a second allosteric site that binds only ATP or dATP. Binding of dATP to this site inhibits the activity of these enzymes. X-ray crystallography has localized the two sites within the structure of the Escherichia coli class I enzyme and identified effector-binding amino acids. Here, we have studied the regulation of three class II enzymes, one from the archaebacterium Thermoplasma acidophilum and two from eubacteria (Lactobacillus leichmannii and Thermotoga maritima). Each enzyme has an allosteric site that binds ATP or various deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates and that regulates its substrate specificity according to the same rules as for class I and III enzymes. dATP does not inhibit enzyme activity, suggesting the absence of a second active allosteric site. For the L. leichmannii and T. maritima enzymes, binding experiments also indicate the presence of only one allosteric site. Their primary sequences suggest that these enzymes lack the structural requirements for a second site. In contrast, the T. acidophilum enzyme binds dATP at two separate sites, and its sequence contains putative effector-binding amino acids for a second site. The presence of a second site without apparent physiological function leads to the hypothesis that a functional site was present early during the evolution of ribonucleotide reductases, but that its function was lost from the T. acidophilum enzyme. The other two B12 enzymes lost not only the function, but also the structural basis for the site. Also a large subgroup (Ib) of class I enzymes, but none of the investigated class III enzymes, has lost this site. This is further indirect evidence that class II and I enzymes may have arisen by divergent evolution from class III enzymes. (+info)
Accelerated transcription of PRPS1 in X-linked overactivity of normal human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase.
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase (PRS) superactivity is an X-linked disorder characterized by gout with overproduction of purine nucleotides and uric acid. Study of the two X-linked PRS isoforms (PRS1 and PRS2) in cells from certain affected individuals has shown selectively increased concentrations of structurally normal PRS1 transcript and isoform, suggesting that this form of the disorder involves pretranslational dysregulation of PRPS1 expression and might be more appropriately termed overactivity of normal PRS. We applied Southern and Northern blot analyses and slot blotting of nuclear runoffs to delineate the process underlying aberrant PRPS1 expression in fibroblasts and lymphoblasts from patients with overactivity of normal PRS. Neither PRPS1 amplification nor altered stability or processing of PRS1 mRNA was identified, but PRPS1 transcription was increased relative to GAPDH (3- to 4-fold normal in fibroblasts; 1.9- to 2.4-fold in lymphoblasts) and PRPS2. Nearly coordinate relative increases in each process mediating transfer of genetic information from PRPS1 transcription to maximal PRS1 isoform expression in patient fibroblasts further supported the idea that accelerated PRPS1 transcription is the major aberration leading to PRS1 overexpression. In addition, modulated relative increases in PRS activities at suboptimal Pi concentration and in rates of PRPP and purine nucleotide synthesis in intact patient fibroblasts indicate that despite an intact allosteric mechanism of regulation of PRS activity, PRPS1 transcription is a major determinant of PRPP and purine synthesis. The genetic basis of disordered PRPS1 transcription remains unresolved; normal- and patient-derived PRPS1s share nucleotide sequence identity at least 850 base pairs 5' to the consensus transcription initiation site. (+info)