Inactivation of poliovirus 1 and F-specific RNA phages and degradation of their genomes by UV irradiation at 254 nanometers.
(17/58)Several models (animal caliciviruses, poliovirus 1 [PV1], and F-specific RNA bacteriophages) are usually used to predict inactivation of nonculturable viruses. For the same UV fluence, viral inactivation observed in the literature varies from 0 to 5 logs according to the models and the methods (infectivity versus molecular biology). The lack of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of inactivation due to UV prevents us from selecting the best model. In this context, determining if viral genome degradation may explain the loss of infectivity under UV radiation becomes essential. Thus, four virus models (PV1 and three F-specific RNA phages: MS2, GA, and Qbeta) were exposed to UV radiation from 0 to 150 mJ.cm-2. PV1 is the least-resistant virus, while MS2 and GA phages are the most resistant, with phage Qbeta having an intermediate sensitivity; respectively, 6-log, 2.3-log, 2.5-log, and 4-log decreases for 50 mJ.cm-2. In parallel, analysis of RNA degradation demonstrated that this phenomenon depends on the fragment size for PV1 as well as for MS2. Long fragments (above 2,000 bases) for PV1 and MS2 fell rapidly to the background level (>1.3-log decrease) for 20 mJ.cm-2 and 60 mJ.cm-2, respectively. Nevertheless, the size of the viral RNA is not the only factor affecting UV-induced RNA degradation, since viral RNA was more rapidly degraded in PV1 than in the MS2 phage with a similar size. Finally, extrapolation of inactivation and UV-induced RNA degradation kinetics highlights that genome degradation could fully explain UV-induced viral inactivation. (+info)
Regulation of memory antibody levels: the role of persisting antigen versus plasma cell life span.
(18/58)Protective Ab levels can be maintained for years upon infection or vaccination. In this study, we studied the duration of Ab responses as a function of the life span of plasma cells and tested the role of persisting Ag in maintaining B cell memory. Our analysis of B cell responses induced in mice immunized with virus-like particles demonstrates the following: 1) Ab titers are long-lived, but decline continuously with a t(1/2) of approximately 80 days, which corresponds to the life span of plasma cells; 2) the germinal center (GC) reaction, which lasts for up to 100 days, is dependent on Ag associated with follicular dendritic cells; and 3) early GCs produce massive numbers of plasma and memory B cell precursors, whereas the late Ag-dependent GCs are dispensable for the maintenance of Ab levels and B cell memory. (+info)
Kinetic analysis of the entire RNA amplification process by Qbeta replicase.
(19/58)The kinetics of the RNA replication reaction by Qbeta replicase were investigated. Qbeta replicase is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase responsible for replicating the RNA genome of coliphage Qbeta and plays a key role in the life cycle of the Qbeta phage. Although the RNA replication reaction using this enzyme has long been studied, a kinetic model that can describe the entire RNA amplification process has yet to be determined. In this study, we propose a kinetic model that is able to account for the entire RNA amplification process. The key to our proposed kinetic model is the consideration of nonproductive binding (i.e. binding of an enzyme to the RNA where the enzyme cannot initiate the reaction). By considering nonproductive binding and the notable enzyme inactivation we observed, the previous observations that remained unresolved could also be explained. Moreover, based on the kinetic model and the experimental results, we determined rate and equilibrium constants using template RNAs of various lengths. The proposed model and the obtained constants provide important information both for understanding the basis of Qbeta phage amplification and the applications using Qbeta replicase. (+info)
A virus-like particle-based vaccine selectively targeting soluble TNF-alpha protects from arthritis without inducing reactivation of latent tuberculosis.
(20/58)Neutralization of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha by mAbs or soluble receptors represents an effective treatment for chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, or Crohn's disease. In this study, we describe a novel active immunization approach against TNF-alpha, which results in the induction of high titers of therapeutically active autoantibodies. Immunization of mice with virus-like particles of the bacteriophage Qbeta covalently linked to either the entire soluble TNF-alpha protein (Qbeta-C-TNF(1-156)) or a 20-aa peptide derived from its N terminus (Qbeta-C-TNF(4-23)) yielded specific Abs, which protected from clinical signs of inflammation in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. Whereas mice immunized with Qbeta-C-TNF(1-156) showed increased susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes infection and enhanced reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mice immunized with Qbeta-C-TNF(4-23) were not immunocompromised with respect to infection with these pathogens. This difference was attributed to recognition of both transmembrane and soluble TNF-alpha by Abs elicited by Qbeta-C-TNF(1-156), and a selective recognition of only soluble TNF-alpha by Abs raised by Qbeta-C-TNF(4-23). Thus, by specifically targeting soluble TNF-alpha, Qbeta-C-TNF(4-23) immunization has the potential to become an effective and safe therapy against inflammatory disorders, which might overcome the risk of opportunistic infections associated with the currently available TNF-alpha antagonists. (+info)
Unnatural amino acid incorporation into virus-like particles.
Quantitative analysis of the bacteriophage Qbeta infection cycle.
Isolation of human monoclonal antibodies by mammalian cell display.
Heparin antagonism by polyvalent display of cationic motifs on virus-like particles.