Inhibitory sites in enzymes: zinc removal and reactivation by thionein. (1/1111)

Thionein (T) has not been isolated previously from biological material. However, it is generated transiently in situ by removal of zinc from metallothionein under oxidoreductive conditions, particularly in the presence of selenium compounds. T very rapidly activates a group of enzymes in which zinc is bound at an inhibitory site. The reaction is selective, as is apparent from the fact that T does not remove zinc from the catalytic sites of zinc metalloenzymes. T instantaneously reverses the zinc inhibition with a stoichiometry commensurate with its known capacity to bind seven zinc atoms in the form of clusters in metallothionein. The zinc inhibition is much more pronounced than was previously reported, with dissociation constants in the low nanomolar range. Thus, T is an effective, endogenous chelating agent, suggesting the existence of a hitherto unknown and unrecognized biological regulatory system. T removes the metal from an inhibitory zinc-specific enzymatic site with a resultant marked increase of activity. The potential significance of this system is supported by the demonstration of its operations in enzymes involved in glycolysis and signal transduction.  (+info)

Xenopus cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein (xCTBP) is aldehyde dehydrogenase catalyzing the formation of retinoic acid. (2/1111)

Amino acid sequencing of an internal peptide fragment derived from purified Xenopus cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein (xCTBP) demonstrates high similarity to the corresponding sequence of mammalian aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) (Yamauchi, K., and Tata, J. R. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 225, 1105-1112). Here we show that xCTBP was co-purified with ALDH and 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) binding activities. By photoaffinity labeling with [125I]T3, a T3-binding site in the xCTBP was estimated to reside in amino acid residues 93-114, which is distinct from the active site of the enzyme but present in the NAD+ binding domain. The amino acid sequences deduced from the two isolated xALDH1 cDNAs (xALDH1-I and xALDH1-II) were 94.6% identical to each other and very similar to those of mammalian ALDH1 enzymes. The two recombinant xALDH1 proteins exhibit both T3 binding activity and ALDH activity converting retinal to retinoic acid (RA), which are similar to those of xCTBP. The mRNAs were present abundantly in kidney and intestine of adult female Xenopus. Interestingly, their T3 binding activities were inhibited by NAD+ and NADH but not by NADP+ and NADPH, whereas NAD+ was required for their ALDH activities. Our results demonstrate that xCTBP is identical to ALDH1 and suggest that this protein might modulate RA synthesis and intracellular level of free T3.  (+info)

Stimulation of premature retinoic acid synthesis in Xenopus embryos following premature expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1. (3/1111)

In order for nuclear retinoic acid receptors to mediate retinoid signaling, the ligand retinoic acid must first be produced from its vitamin A precursor retinal. Biochemical studies have shown that retinal can be metabolized in vitro to retinoic acid by members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme family, including ALDH1. Here we describe the first direct evidence that ALDH1 plays a physiological role in retinoic acid synthesis by analysis of retinoid signaling in Xenopus embryos, which have plentiful stores of maternally derived retinal. The Xenopus ALDH1 gene was cloned and shown to be highly conserved with chick and mammalian homologs. Xenopus ALDH1 was not expressed at blastula and gastrula stages, but was expressed at the neurula stage. We used a retinoic acid bioassay to demonstrate that retinoic acid is normally undetectable in embryos from fertilization to the initial gastrula stage, but that a tremendous increase in retinoic acid occurs during neurulation when ALDH1 is first expressed. Overexpression of ALDH1 by injection of Xenopus embryos with mRNAs encoding the mouse, chick or Xenopus ALDH1 homologs induced high levels of retinoic acid detection during the blastula stage. Thus, premature expression of ALDH1 stimulates premature synthesis of retinoic acid. These findings reveal an important conserved role for ALDH1 in retinoic acid synthesis in vivo, and demonstrate that conversion of retinoids from the aldehyde form to the carboxylic acid form is a crucial regulatory step in retinoid signaling.  (+info)

The negative regulation of the rat aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 gene by glucocorticoids: involvement of a single imperfect palindromic glucocorticoid responsive element. (4/1111)

Glucocorticoids repressed the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-dependent induction of Class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH3) enzyme activity and mRNA levels in isolated rat hepatocytes by more than 50 to 80%, with a concentration-dependence consistent with the involvement of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). No consistent effect on the low basal transcription rate was observed. This effect of glucocorticoids (GC) on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon induction was effectively antagonized at the mRNA and protein level by the GR antagonist RU38486. The response was cycloheximide-sensitive, because the protein synthesis inhibitor caused a GC-dependent superinduction of ALDH3 mRNA levels. This suggests that the effects of GC on this gene are complex and both positive and negative gene regulation is possible. The GC-response was recapitulated in HepG2 cells using transient transfection experiments with CAT reporter constructs containing 3.5 kb of 5'-flanking region from ALDH3. This ligand-dependent response was also observed when a chimeric GR (GR DNA-binding domain and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand-binding domain) was used in place of GR in the presence of the peroxisome proliferator, nafenopin. A putative palindromic glucocorticoid-responsive element exists between -930 and -910 base pairs relative to the transcription start site. If this element was either deleted or mutated, the negative GC-response was completely lost, which suggests that this sequence is responsible, in part, for the negative regulation of the gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis demonstrated that this palindromic glucocorticoid-responsive element is capable of forming a specific DNA-protein complex with human glucocorticoid receptor. In conclusion, the negative regulation of ALDH3 in rat liver is probably mediated through direct GR binding to its canonical responsive element.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of two closely related mouse aldehyde dehydrogenase genes: identification of a role for Aldh1, but not Aldh-pb, in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid. (5/1111)

Mammalian class I aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) has been implicated as a retinal dehydrogenase in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid, a modulator of gene expression and cell differentiation. As the first step towards studying the regulation of ALDH1 and its physiological role in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid, mouse ALDH1 cDNA and genomic clones have been characterized. During the cloning process, an additional closely related gene was also isolated and named Aldh-pb, owing to its high amino acid sequence identity (92%) with the rat phenobarbitol-inducible ALDH protein (ALDH-PB). Aldh1 spans about 45 kb in length, whereas Aldh-pb spans about 35 kb. Both genes are composed of 13 exons, and the positions of all the exon/intron boundaries are conserved with those of human ALDH1. The promoter regions of Aldh1 and Aldh-pb demonstrate high sequence similarity with those of human ALDH1 and rat ALDH-PB. Expression of Aldh1 and Aldh-pb is tissue-specific, with mRNAs for both genes being found in the liver, lung and testis, but not in the heart, spleen or muscle. Expression of Aldh-pb, but not Aldh1, was also detected at high levels in the kidney. Aldh1 and Aldh-pb encode proteins of 501 amino acids with 90% positional identity. To examine the relative roles of these two enzymes in retinoic acid synthesis in vivo, Xenopus embryos were injected with mRNAs encoding these enzymes to assay the effect on conversion of endogenous retinal into retinoic acid. Injection of ALDH1, but not ALDH-PB, mRNA stimulated retinoic acid synthesis in Xenopus embryos at the blastula stage. Thus our results indicate that Aldh1 can function in retinoic acid synthesis under physiological conditions, but that the closely related Aldh-pb does not share this property.  (+info)

Relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase extended family. (6/1111)

One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project.  (+info)

The loss in hydrophobic surface area resulting from a Leu to Val mutation at the N-terminus of the aldehyde dehydrogenase presequence prevents import of the protein into mitochondria. (7/1111)

An apparent conservative mutation, Leu to Val, at the second residue of the rat liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) presequence resulted in a precursor protein that was not imported into mitochondria. Additional mutants were made to substitute various amino acids with nonpolar side chains for Leu2. The Ile, Phe, and Trp mutants were imported to an extent similar to that of the native precursor, but the Ala mutant was imported only about one-fourth as well. It was shown that the N-terminal methionine was removed from the L2V mutant in a reaction catalyzed by methionine aminopeptidase. The N-terminal methionine of native pALDH and the other mutant presequences was blocked, presumably by acetylation. Because of the difference in co-translational modification, the L2V mutant sustained a significant loss in the available hydrophobic surface of the presequence. Import competence was restored to the L2V mutant when it was translated using a system that did not remove Met1. The removal of an Arg-Gly-Pro helix linker segment (residues 11-14) from the L2V mutant, which shifted three leucine residues toward the N-terminus, also restored import competence. These results lead to the conclusion that a minimum amount of hydrophobic surface area near the N-termini of mitochondrial presequences is an essential property to determine their ability to be imported. As a result, both electrostatic and hydrophobic components must be considered when trying to understand the interactions between precursor proteins and proteins of the mitochondrial import apparatus.  (+info)

In vivo mitochondrial import. A comparison of leader sequence charge and structural relationships with the in vitro model resulting in evidence for co-translational import. (8/1111)

The positive charges and structural properties of the mitochondrial leader sequence of aldehyde dehydrogenase have been extensively studied in vitro. The results of these studies showed that increasing the helicity of this leader would compensate for reduced import from positive charge substitutions of arginine with glutamine or the insertion of negative charged residues made in the native leader. In this in vivo study, utilizing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a passenger protein, import results showed the opposite effect with respect to helicity, but the results from mutations made within the native leader sequence were consistent between the in vitro and in vivo experiments. Leader mutations that reduced the efficiency of import resulted in a cytosolic accumulation of a truncated GFP chimera that was fluorescent but devoid of a mitochondrial leader. The native leader efficiently imported before GFP could achieve a stable, import-incompetent structure, suggesting that import was coupled with translation. As a test for a co-translational mechanism, a chimera of GFP that contained the native leader of aldehyde dehydrogenase attached at the N terminus and a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum targeting signal attached to the C terminus of GFP was constructed. This chimera was localized exclusively to mitochondria. The import result with the dual signal chimera provides support for a co-translational mitochondrial import pathway.  (+info)