Alcohol intake and the risk of lung cancer: influence of type of alcoholic beverage.
Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, but the antioxidants in wine may, in theory, provide protection. This association was studied in 28,160 men and women subjects from three prospective studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. After adjustment for age, smoking, and education, a low to moderate alcohol intake (1-20 drinks per week) was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Men who consumed 21-41 and more than 41 drinks per week had relative risks of 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.74) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.06-2.33), respectively. The risk of lung cancer differed according to the type of alcohol consumed: After abstainers were excluded, drinkers of 1-13 and more than 13 glasses of wine per week had relative risks of 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.22-0.86), respectively, as compared with nondrinkers of wine (p for trend = 0.002). Corresponding relative risks for beer intake were 1.09 (95% CI 0.83-1.43) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.02-1.82), respectively (p for trend = 0.01); for spirits, they were 1.21 (95% CI 0.97-1.50) and 1.46 (95% CI 0.99-2.14), respectively (p for trend = 0.02). In women, the ability to detect associations with high alcohol intake and type of beverage was limited because of a limited range of alcohol intake. The authors concluded that in men, a high consumption of beer and spirits is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, whereas wine intake may protect against the development of lung cancer. (+info)
Type of alcoholic drink and risk of major coronary heart disease events and all-cause mortality.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of beer, spirits, and wine drinking on coronary heart disease (CHD) events (fatal and nonfatal) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Men aged 40 to 59 years (n = 7735) were drawn at random from one general practice in each of 24 British towns and followed up for an average of 16.8 years. RESULTS: Regular drinkers showed a significantly lower relative risk of CHD, but no all-cause mortality, than occasional drinkers, even after adjustment for potential confounders. The benefit for CHD of regular drinking was seen within both beer drinkers and spirit drinkers but not among men who reported wine drinking. However, all men who reported wine drinking (both occasional and regular) showed significantly lower age-adjusted risks of CHD and all-cause mortality than men drinking beer or spirits; beer and spirit drinkers showed similar risks. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that regular intake of all alcoholic drinks is associated with a lower risk of CHD, but not all-cause mortality, than occasional drinking. A large part, but not all, of the greater benefit seen in wine drinkers relative to other drinkers can be attributed to advantageous lifestyle characteristics (e.g., low rates of smoking and obesity). (+info)
Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer in men.
BACKGROUND: Studies in animals have shown that the frequency of urination is inversely associated with the level of potential carcinogens in the urothelium. In humans, an increase in total fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and urothelium by diluting urinary metabolites and increasing the frequency of voiding. The data on fluid intake in relation to the risk of bladder cancer are inconclusive. METHODS: We examined the relation between total fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer over a period of 10 years among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. There were 252 newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer during the follow-up period. Information on total fluid intake was derived from the reported frequency of consumption of the 22 types of beverages on the food-frequency questionnaire, which was completed by each of the 47,909 participants who were free of cancer in 1986. Logistic-regression analyses were performed to adjust for known and suspected risk factors for bladder cancer. RESULTS: Total daily fluid intake was inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer; the multivariate relative risk was 0.51 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.80) for the highest quintile of total daily fluid intake (>2531 ml per day) as compared with the lowest quintile (<1290 ml per day). The consumption of water contributed to a lower risk (relative risk, 0.49 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.86] for > or =1440 ml [6 cups] per day vs. <240 ml [1 cup] per day), as did the consumption of other fluids (relative risk, 0.63 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.99] for >1831 ml per day vs. <735 ml per day). CONCLUSIONS: A high fluid intake is associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer in men. (+info)
Does the concept of a standard drink apply to viticultural societies?
The use of standard drink units (SDUs) in the measurement of individual alcohol consumption has become widely popular in recent years. However, the ethanol content of drinks varies from country to country and is usually arrived at without scientific backing. The present study was designed to establish an SDU for a predominantly wine-drinking country (Spain). Two field studies were simultaneously conducted to gather data about home and public alcohol consumption in eight regions of the country with a total of 10751 subjects. The average alcohol content of a drink was very similar for wine and beer, whereas in the case of spirits it was almost double. Relevant differences were found across regions, drinking settings and city sizes. A Spanish SDU was set at 10 g of ethanol for wine and beer, with a measure of spirits accounting for two SDUs. The use of SDUs should be encouraged in primary health care settings. However, dispersion of data suggests that, when SDU is used as a screening tool, additional information should always be obtained in borderline cases. (+info)
Alcohol intake, beverage preference, and risk of hip fracture in men and women. Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies.
The authors prospectively studied the association between quantity and type of alcohol intake and risk of hip fracture among 17,868 men and 13,917 women. Analyses were based on pooled data from three population studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During follow-up, 500 first hip fractures were identified in women and 307 in men. A low to moderate weekly alcohol intake (1-27 drinks for men and 1-13 drinks for women) was not associated with hip fracture. Among men, the relative risk of hip fracture gradually increased for those who drank 28 drinks or more per week (relative risk (RR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.89 for 28-41 drinks; RR = 5.28, 95% CI 2.60-10.70 for 70 or more drinks) as compared with abstainers. Women who drank 14-27 drinks per week had an age-adjusted relative risk of hip fracture of 1.44 (95% CI 1.03-2.03), but the association weakened after adjustment for confounders (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.92-1.87). The risk of hip fracture differed according to the type of alcohol preferred: preferrers of beer had a higher risk of hip fracture (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.11-1.91) than preferrers of other types of alcoholic beverages. The corresponding relative risks for preferrers of wine and spirits were 0.77 (95% CI 0.58-1.03) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.58-1.14), respectively. In conclusion, an alcohol intake within the current European drinking limits does not influence the risk of hip fracture, whereas an alcohol intake of more than 27 drinks per week is a major risk factor for men. (+info)
Effect of ethanol on the urinary excretion of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanediols, biomarkers of the exposure to cyclohexanone, cyclohexane and cyclohexanol in humans.
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the acute effect of ethanol (EtOH) on the urinary excretion of cyclohexanol (CH-ol), 1,2- and 1,4-cyclohexanediol (CH-diol), biomarkers of exposure to important solvents, and chemical intermediates cyclohexanone (CH-one), cyclohexane (CH) and cyclohexanol. METHODS: Volunteers (5-8 in each group) were exposed for 8 hours either to CH-one, CH or CH-ol vapor at concentrations of about 200, 1000, and 200 mg/m3, respectively, with concomitant ingestion of EtOH (4 14-g doses taken during the exposure). Urine was collected for 72 hours and analyzed for CH-ol and CH-diols using a procedure involving acidic hydrolysis and gas chromatographic determination. RESULTS: The metabolic yields of CH-ol, 1,2-, and 1,4-CH-diol, respectively, in the exposures with EtOH were as follows: 11.3%, 36%, 23% after the exposure to CH-one, 3.1%, 15%, 8% after the exposure to CH, and 6.6%, 24%, 18% after the exposure to CH-ol. [The corresponding values obtained previously in matching experiments without EtOH were as follows: 1.0%, 39%, 18% (CH-one); 0.5%, 23%, 11% (CH); and 1.1%, 19%, 8% (CH-ol).] The excretion curves of the metabolites in the exposures with EtOH were not delayed when compared with the corresponding curves of a comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: The urinary excretion of CH-diols is much less sensitive to EtOH than that of CH-ol. It is recommended to employ CH-diols as useful and more reliable biomarkers of exposure to CH-one, CH and CH-ol in field examinations. (+info)
Plasma endothelin-1 elevation associated with alcohol-induced variant angina.
Vasospastic angina as a result of alcohol ingestion has been reported, but the mechanism of alcohol-induced coronary artery spasm is presently unknown. This report presents 2 cases of alcohol-induced variant angina (VA) with elevated levels of plasma endothelin-1 after alcohol ingestion. In case 1, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 3.15 pg/ml before drinking (normal <2.30 pg/ml) and increased to 4.09 pg/ml when measured 5 h after alcohol ingestion. After 2 months of abstinence, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 2.88 pg/ml and 6 months after abstinence, it decreased to 2.03 pg/ml (normal range). In case 2, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 2.44 pg/ml before drinking and increased to 4.36 pg/ml when measured 5 h after alcohol ingestion. After 2 months of abstinence, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 3.04 pg/ml and 6 months after abstinence, it decreased to 2.09 pg/ml (normal range). These 2 cases suggest that a relationship may exist between alcohol-induced VA and elevation in the plasma endothelin-1 concentration after alcohol ingestion. (+info)
Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance in the Framingham Heart Study.
Recent studies have indicated that moderate alcohol intake may be beneficial to cognitive functioning in women, although not necessarily in men. Data from the Framingham Heart Study, a large, prospective study of cardiovascular disease in Framingham, Massachusetts, were used to examine the relation between alcohol consumption and cognitive ability. The major research question was whether a different alcohol-cognition relation would be found for male and female drinkers. Men (n = 733) and women (n = 1,053), aged 55-88 years, were queried as to their weekly intake of alcohol, and these data were used to construct groups of abstainers, very light, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. Data from earlier reports of alcohol consumption were also examined. Participants were administered eight tests which reflect performance in the domains of verbal memory, learning, visual organization and memory, attention, abstract reasoning, and concept formation. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used with statistical adjustment for age, education, occupation, cardiovascular disease, and associated risk factors. Women who drank moderately (2-4 drinks/day) showed superior performance in many cognitive domains relative to abstainers. For men, superior performance was found within the range of 4-8 drinks/day, although fewer significant relations were observed. These results were confirmed by prospective analyses of 24-year drinking history. (+info)