Moderate physical activity in relation to mammographic patterns.
High-risk mammographic patterns may be used as a surrogate end point for breast cancer in etiologic research as well as in prevention studies. Physical activity may be one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We examined the relationship between physical activity and mammographic patterns among 2720 Norwegian women, ages 40-56 years, who participated in both the Second and Third Tromso studies. Epidemiologic data were obtained through questionnaires. Two questions from the Second Tromso study and five questions from the Third elicited information on physical activity. The mammograms were categorized into five groups based on anatomical-mammographic correlations. For analysis, patterns I through III were combined into a low-risk group and patterns IV and V into a high-risk group. Odds ratios that were adjusted for age, education, menopausal status, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol intake, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using logistic regression. Women who reported moderate physical activity, i.e., more than 2 h/week, were 20% less likely (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1) to have high-risk mammographic patterns compared with those who reported being inactive. This relationship remains consistent when stratified by menopausal status, parity, and tertiles of body mass index. However, all of the associations between various measures of physical activity and high-risk patterns found in this study are weak with confidence intervals that include 1.0. Thus, chance is a reasonable explanation for the weak associations found. The relationship between physical activity and high-risk patterns should be examined further as a means to explore the biologic mechanisms relating physical activity to breast cancer risk. (+info)
Alcohol intake and the risk of lung cancer: influence of type of alcoholic beverage.
Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, but the antioxidants in wine may, in theory, provide protection. This association was studied in 28,160 men and women subjects from three prospective studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. After adjustment for age, smoking, and education, a low to moderate alcohol intake (1-20 drinks per week) was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Men who consumed 21-41 and more than 41 drinks per week had relative risks of 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.74) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.06-2.33), respectively. The risk of lung cancer differed according to the type of alcohol consumed: After abstainers were excluded, drinkers of 1-13 and more than 13 glasses of wine per week had relative risks of 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.22-0.86), respectively, as compared with nondrinkers of wine (p for trend = 0.002). Corresponding relative risks for beer intake were 1.09 (95% CI 0.83-1.43) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.02-1.82), respectively (p for trend = 0.01); for spirits, they were 1.21 (95% CI 0.97-1.50) and 1.46 (95% CI 0.99-2.14), respectively (p for trend = 0.02). In women, the ability to detect associations with high alcohol intake and type of beverage was limited because of a limited range of alcohol intake. The authors concluded that in men, a high consumption of beer and spirits is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, whereas wine intake may protect against the development of lung cancer. (+info)
Quality of life and performance in advanced head and neck cancer patients on concomitant chemoradiotherapy: a prospective examination.
PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate performance and quality of life (QOL) in advanced-stage head and neck cancer (HNC) patients on a curative-intent, concomitant-chemoradiotherapy (CT/XRT) (twice-daily radiation, fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, and cisplatin) regimen aimed at improving locoregional control, survival, and QOL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients were assessed before, during, and at 3-month intervals after treatment. Standardized measures of QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck), performance (Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer Patients and Karnofsky Performance Status Rating Scale), and patient-reported symptoms (McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire) were administered. RESULTS: Acute treatment toxicities were severe, with declines in virtually all QOL and functional domains. Marked improvement was seen by 12 months; general functional and physical measures returned to baseline levels of good to excellent. Although up to a third of the patients continued to report problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and mouth pain, these difficulties were present in similar magnitudes before treatment. The following symptoms were more frequent at 12 months: dry mouth (58% v 17%), difficulties tasting (32% v 8%), and soft food diet (82% v 42%). Twelve-month diet was not related to pretreatment functioning, disease, treatment, or patient characteristics. Twelve-month QOL was best predicted by pretreatment QOL, with very little relationship to residual side effects or functional impairments. Small numbers of patients in four of the five disease sites precluded examination of outcome by site. CONCLUSION: These data support the feasibility of intense CT/XRT as primary treatment for advanced HNC. Results confirm acute toxicity but indicate that many of the treatment-related performance and QOL declines resolve by 12 months. The persistent inability to eat a full range of foods warrants further attention and monitoring. (+info)
Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion.
Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunteers for its stimulatory action on gastric acid output and gastrin release. Five substances were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and were analyzed by mass spectrometry and 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At the end of the separation process of the five identified substances, only the two dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid and succinic acid, had a significant (P < 0.05) stimulatory action on gastric acid output (76% and 70% of fermented glucose, respectively), but not on gastrin release. When given together, they increased gastric acid output by 100% of fermented glucose and by 95% of maximal acid output. We therefore conclude that maleic acid and succinic acid are the powerful stimulants of gastric acid output in fermented glucose and alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation, and that gastrin is not their mediator of action. (+info)
Risky single-occasion drinking amongst young people--definition, correlates, policy, and intervention: a broad overview of research findings.
Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) has dire consequences upon health and well-being including unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS, crime, and car accidents. The prevalence of RSOD among young people is alarming. Despite this, as yet, a review of existing literature on RSOD amongst young people is lacking. This article will provide an overview of this area of research focusing on the definition of RSOD, its prevalence among young people, health and behavioural effects of RSOD, the perceived risk of RSOD among young people, and interventions to reduce RSOD in young people. In addition, recommendations are made for health educators interested in reducing the incidence of RSOD in young people. (+info)
Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of alcohol drinking in Wistar rats.
The aim of the present study was to determine if nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) might be involved in the regulation of alcohol intake by Wistar rats. A non-selective nAChR agonist, nicotine, and a non-competitive nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine, were tested in alcohol-preferring Wistar rats maintained on a limited access (4 h/24 h) to ethanol (10%, v/v). In addition, the effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on intake of standard laboratory chow were studied in a separate control experiment. Nicotine (0.1-0.6 mg/kg, s.c.) decreased ethanol consumption, but had no effect on food intake. In contrast, mecamylamine (1-3 mg/kg, s.c.) did not alter ethanol drinking even at the dose (3 mg/kg) which significantly decreased food intake. These results suggest that activation of nAChRs may selectively reduce ethanol consumption in outbred Wistar rats. (+info)
Ciprofloxacin administration decreases enhanced ethanol elimination in ethanol-fed rats.
Many colonic aerobic bacteria possess alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and are capable of oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde. Accordingly, some ingested ethanol can be metabolized in the colon in vivo via the bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation. By diminishing the amount of aerobic colonic bacteria with ciprofloxacin treatment, we recently showed that the bacteriocolonic pathway may contribute up to 9% of total ethanol elimination in naive rats. In the current study we evaluated the role of the bacteriocolonic pathway in enhanced ethanol metabolism following chronic alcohol administration by diminishing the amount of gut aerobic flora by ciprofloxacin treatment. We found that ciprofloxacin treatment totally abolished the enhancement in ethanol elimination rate (EER) caused by chronic alcohol administration and significantly diminished the amount of colonic aerobic bacteria and faecal ADH activity. However, ciprofloxacin treatment had no significant effects on the hepatic microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system, hepatic ADH activity or plasma endotoxin level. Our data suggest that the decrease in the amount of the aerobic colonic bacteria and in faecal ADH activity by ciprofloxacin is primarily responsible for the decrease in the enhanced EER in rats fed alcohol chronically. Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism by gastrointestinal bacteria may therefore contribute significantly to enhanced EER. (+info)
Alcohol consumption profile by time in middle-aged men: a longitudinal study based on three different diagnostic instruments.
This longitudinal study aimed at comparing aggregate measures of heavy or problem drinking and their variations across time among the same subjects. We examined middle-aged men participating in a health survey over a 5-year interval. Of the 133 consecutive men in the whole age group interviewed as 40-year-olds in 1989, 114 were reached and re-interviewed in 1994. Alcohol consumption was measured by self-report, Malmo-modified Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mm-MAST), and serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT). Self-reported alcohol consumption decreased with years (142 vs 105 g/week, P = 0.01), as did CDT (16.9 vs 14.4 U/l, P = 0.02), but there was no change in the Mm-MAST results. There was no significant difference in the number of heavy drinkers (either Mm-MAST score > or = 3, or by self-reported alcohol consumption > or = 280 g/week, or by CDT > or = 20 U/l) at 40 and 45 years of age (37 and 47% respectively). At the individual level, alcohol consumption both increased and decreased with age. At 45 years of age 5/114 (4%) of the men reported that they had increased their alcohol consumption by more than 80 g/week and 25/114 (22%) said that they had reduced their drinking by the same amount. The remaining 84 (74%) reported drinking the same amount as 5 years earlier (+/- 80 g/week). This indicates that alcohol drinking habits are not stable in middle age. Most heavy drinkers in both age groups were detected by Mm-MAST and this proportion increased with age while the proportion of positive self-reports and CDTs decreased. Thus, the social consequences, measured here by the Mm-MAST, may be more readily experienced with years even at smaller consumption levels. (+info)