HDL cholesterol subfractions and risk of developing type 2 diabetes among Pima Indians.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between HDL cholesterol subfractions and the incidence of type 2 diabetes and to evaluate potential sex differences in these relationships. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Proportional hazards analyses were performed to examine the relationships between HDL subfractions and the development of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indian women and men. Results were controlled for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and 2-h glucose. RESULTS: Some 54 of 123 women and 25 of 50 men developed type 2 diabetes during a mean follow-up of 10 (2-19) years. For women, in separate models, high levels of total HDL, HDL2a, and HDL3 were negatively associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes; results were unchanged in models further controlled for fasting insulin level or alcohol consumption. For men, the results were inconsistent and associated with wide confidence intervals; high total HDL and HDL3 were positively associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes in models further controlled for fasting insulin level, but the risk estimates were attenuated in models further controlled for alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of total HDL, HDL2a, and HDL3 were potential protective factors against type 2 diabetes in women after accounting for alcohol consumption and insulin resistance. High levels of total HDL and HDL3 were predictive of type 2 diabetes in men; the relationship in men appeared to be due to an association with alcohol consumption. The sex differences in the effects of HDL cholesterol may be related to the effects of sex hormones or lipoproteins. (+info)
Serum uric acid: correlation with biological, clinical and behavioral factors in Japanese men.
Cross-sectional associations between biological, clinical and behavioral factors and serum uric acid (SUA) levels were examined in 2,438 Japanese male office workers aged 20 to 59 years in Osaka, Japan. Stepwise regression analysis for SUA was carried out for all persons and repeated excluding those under medication for hypertension, hyperuricemia or diabetes mellitus. The results were essentially the same without change in the sequence of the seven most important variables. When 150 men under medication were excluded, independent correlates with SUA levels were, in order of relative importance, history of gout, log triglyceride, creatinine, hemoglobin A1c (negative association), body mass index, total protein, alcohol intake, age (negative association), and total cholesterol. 32.7 percent of total variation in SUA was accounted for by these variables combined. Our data suggest that weight and serum lipids control and avoiding excessive drinking may be beneficial in the prevention of hyperuricemia. (+info)
Assessment methods for alcohol consumption, prevalence of high risk drinking and harm: a sensitivity analysis.
BACKGROUND: There are no standardized ways to assess alcohol consumption in epidemiological studies. The main objective of the present study was to compare three widely used methods for assessing alcohol consumption with respect to resulting prevalence estimates for high risk drinking and harm as defined by morbidity and mortality indicators. METHODS: A within-subjects design was used to compare a quantity frequency, a graduated frequency, and a weekly drinking recall measure. Data consisted of a representative sample of 3961 adult residents of the province of Ontario, Canada, who participated in a multi-wave cross-sectional survey between 1990-1994. Cross-tabulation, Spearman correlation, and standard methodologies for prevalence-based cost-of-illness studies were used. RESULTS: The graduated frequency measure consistently yielded higher estimates of the prevalences of high risk drinking and harm. Differences were marked on all indicators, but were most pronounced for harmful drinking as defined by consuming an average of >60 g pure alcohol per day for males, and >40 g per day for females. Prevalence estimates of harmful drinking were almost five times higher for graduated frequency versus weekly drinking measures, and almost three times higher for graduated frequency versus quantity frequency measures. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of different measures of alcohol consumption should be considered in future research in epidemiology. (+info)
Does the concept of a standard drink apply to viticultural societies?
The use of standard drink units (SDUs) in the measurement of individual alcohol consumption has become widely popular in recent years. However, the ethanol content of drinks varies from country to country and is usually arrived at without scientific backing. The present study was designed to establish an SDU for a predominantly wine-drinking country (Spain). Two field studies were simultaneously conducted to gather data about home and public alcohol consumption in eight regions of the country with a total of 10751 subjects. The average alcohol content of a drink was very similar for wine and beer, whereas in the case of spirits it was almost double. Relevant differences were found across regions, drinking settings and city sizes. A Spanish SDU was set at 10 g of ethanol for wine and beer, with a measure of spirits accounting for two SDUs. The use of SDUs should be encouraged in primary health care settings. However, dispersion of data suggests that, when SDU is used as a screening tool, additional information should always be obtained in borderline cases. (+info)
Chronic ethanol consumption induces hypomotility in the portal vein of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.
In order to study the physiopathological effects of chronic ethanol intake on the smooth muscle of the vascular system, we have assessed the length-tension relationship in isolated portal veins of Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats. Significant differences in motor performance were found between sP naive and sP rats exposed to ethanol consumption (12% w/v) for 48 weeks. Isolated portal veins of sP rats which consumed ethanol chronically showed a marked decrease of spontaneous and KCl-induced contraction waves when compared to sP naive rats. At optimum length (140% Lr) for maximal contractile performance, the mean amplitude wave in the portal veins of sP drinker rats was about five times less than in sP naive veins. Furthermore, in the veins of sP drinkers, the active curve showed lower values of tension at each elongation of the vascular segment, the maximum value of active tension (7.32 +/- 0.54 mN) represented a reduction in amplitude of about 32% with respect to sP naive veins. These results indicate that long-term ethanol consumption impairs portal vein motility. (+info)
Long-term alcohol self-administration with repeated alcohol deprivation phases: an animal model of alcoholism?
In order to study the neurobiological and molecular mechanisms of alcohol dependence and addiction, appropriate animal models are warranted. Although animal models cannot incorporate all aspects and criteria of an addictive behaviour to alcohol seen in human alcoholics, they can at least reflect some of the criteria given in the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Association (1994). Novel aspects of addictive behaviour to alcohol, craving and relapse might be uncovered by animal models of long-term, free-choice, alcohol self-administration followed by alcohol deprivation phases. After several months of voluntary alcohol consumption, the drug-taking behaviour following a deprivation (withdrawal) phase is characterized by increased alcohol intake and preference (alcohol deprivation effect) and changes in alcohol intake patterns where animals consume large amounts of highly concentrated alcohol solutions even at inappropriate times (e.g. during the inactive light phase when drinking activity is minimal). Altogether, alcohol drinking following alcohol deprivation seems to become uncontrolled and inelastic, reflecting an incentive demand for the drug in such a model. Furthermore, the alcohol deprivation effect outlasts very long abstinence phases, which indicates the persistence of a drug memory for alcohol. (+info)
Alcohol intake, beverage preference, and risk of hip fracture in men and women. Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies.
The authors prospectively studied the association between quantity and type of alcohol intake and risk of hip fracture among 17,868 men and 13,917 women. Analyses were based on pooled data from three population studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During follow-up, 500 first hip fractures were identified in women and 307 in men. A low to moderate weekly alcohol intake (1-27 drinks for men and 1-13 drinks for women) was not associated with hip fracture. Among men, the relative risk of hip fracture gradually increased for those who drank 28 drinks or more per week (relative risk (RR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.89 for 28-41 drinks; RR = 5.28, 95% CI 2.60-10.70 for 70 or more drinks) as compared with abstainers. Women who drank 14-27 drinks per week had an age-adjusted relative risk of hip fracture of 1.44 (95% CI 1.03-2.03), but the association weakened after adjustment for confounders (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.92-1.87). The risk of hip fracture differed according to the type of alcohol preferred: preferrers of beer had a higher risk of hip fracture (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.11-1.91) than preferrers of other types of alcoholic beverages. The corresponding relative risks for preferrers of wine and spirits were 0.77 (95% CI 0.58-1.03) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.58-1.14), respectively. In conclusion, an alcohol intake within the current European drinking limits does not influence the risk of hip fracture, whereas an alcohol intake of more than 27 drinks per week is a major risk factor for men. (+info)
Factors associated with ischemic stroke during aspirin therapy in atrial fibrillation: analysis of 2012 participants in the SPAF I-III clinical trials. The Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation (SPAF) Investigators.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is a strong, independent risk factor for stroke, but the absolute rate of stroke varies widely among AF patients, importantly influencing the potential benefit of antithrombotic prophylaxis. We explore factors associated with ischemic stroke in AF patients taking aspirin. METHODS: We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis of 2012 participants given aspirin alone or in combination with low, inefficacious doses of warfarin in the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation I-III trials followed for a mean of 2.0 years, during which 130 ischemic strokes were observed. RESULTS: Age (relative risk [RR]=1.8 per decade, P<0.001), female sex (RR=1.6, P=0.01), history of hypertension (RR=2.0, P<0.001), systolic blood pressure >160 mm Hg (RR=2.3, P<0.001), and prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (RR=2.9, P<0.001) were independently associated with increased stroke risk. Regular consumption of >/=14 alcohol-containing drinks per week was associated with reduced stroke risk (adjusted RR=0.4, P=0.04). Among SPAF III participants, estrogen hormone replacement therapy was associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted RR=3.2, P=0.007). With the use of these variables, a risk stratification scheme for primary prevention separated participants into those with high (7.1%/y, 22% of the cohort), moderate (2.6%/y, 37% of the cohort), and low (0.9%/y, 41% of the cohort) rates of stroke. Ischemic strokes in low-risk participants were less often disabling (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AF who have high and low rates of stroke during treatment with aspirin can be identified. However, validation of our risk stratification scheme is necessary before it can be applied with confidence to clinical management. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy and moderate alcohol consumption may additionally modify the risk of stroke in AF, but these findings require confirmation. (+info)