Isolation of rat liver albumin messenger RNA.
Rat liver albumin messenger RNA has been purified to apparent homogeneity by means of polysome immunoprecipitation and poly(U)-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Specific polysomes synthesizing albumin were separated from total liver polysomes through a double antibody technique which allowed isolation of a specific immunoprecipitate. The albumin-polysome immunoprecipitate was dissolved in detergent and the polysomal RNA was separated from protein by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Albumin mRNA was then separated from ribosomal RNA by affinity chromatography through the binding of poly(U)-Sepharose to the polyadenylate 3' terminus of the mRNA. Pure albumin mRNA migrated as an 18 S peak on 85% formamide-containing linear sucrose gradients and as a 22 S peak on 2.5% polyacrylamide gels in sodium dodecyl sulfate. It coded for the translation of authentic liver albumin when added to a heterologous protein-synthesizing cell-free system derived from either rabbit reticulocyte lysates or wheat germ extracts. Translation analysis in reticulocyte lysates indicated that albumin polysomes were purified approximately 9-fold from total liver polysomes, and that albumin mRNA was purified approximately 74-fold from albumin polysomal RNA. The total translation product in the mRNA-dependent wheat germ system, upon addition of the pure mRNA, was identified as authentic albumin by means of gel electrophoresis and tryptic peptide chromatography. (+info)
Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series.
BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an established component of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, and is an important procedure in cancer staging; however, it is associated with unpleasant side effects. We have investigated a radioactive tracer-guided procedure that facilitates identification, removal, and pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node (i.e., the lymph node first receiving lymphatic fluid from the area of the breast containing the tumor) to predict the status of the axilla and to assess the safety of foregoing axillary dissection if the sentinel lymph node shows no involvement. METHODS: We injected 5-10 MBq of 99mTc-labeled colloidal particles of human albumin peritumorally in 376 consecutive patients with breast cancer who were enrolled at the European Institute of Oncology during the period from March 1996 through March 1998. The sentinel lymph node in each case was visualized by lymphoscintigraphy, and its general location was marked on the overlying skin. During breast surgery, the sentinel lymph node was identified for removal by monitoring the acoustic signal from a hand-held gamma ray-detecting probe. Total axillary dissection was then carried out. The pathologic status of the sentinel lymph node was compared with that of the whole axilla. RESULTS: The sentinel lymph node was identified in 371 (98.7%) of the 376 patients and accurately predicted the state of the axilla in 359 (95.5%) of the patients, with 12 false-negative findings (6.7%; 95% confidence interval = 3.5%-11.4%) among a total of 180 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy using a gamma ray-detecting probe allows staging of the axilla with high accuracy in patients with primary breast cancer. A randomized trial is necessary to determine whether axillary dissection may be avoided in those patients with an uninvolved sentinel lymph node. (+info)
"The FSGS factor:" enrichment and in vivo effect of activity from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis plasma.
A circulating causative factor has been postulated in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). It has been shown that serum or plasma from some FSGS increases glomerular albumin permeability (Palb) in vitro. Palb greater than 0.5 (i.e., FS activity) is associated with recurrence after transplantation. Specimens from 15 FSGS patients were studied to document the presence of a permeability factor, to isolate this factor, to characterize its biochemical properties, and to show its effect in vivo. Total lipids were extracted by chloroform/methanol (2: 1); FS activity was absent from total lipid extract. Chylomicrons and lipoproteins were removed from the plasma with dextran sulfate, followed by sequential precipitation of proteins at 50 and 70% ammonium sulfate saturation. FS activity was retained in the 70% ammonium sulfate supernatant and exhibited a 100-fold purification. FS activity was lost after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min or after protease digestion. Under nondenaturing conditions, electrophoresis of the FSGS 70% supernatant showed a prominent low molecular weight band that was not evident in the 70% supernatant from normal plasma. Dialysis and centrifugation-based membrane ultrafiltration of the FSGS factor indicated a molecular size between 30 and 50 kD. Injection of the 70% FSGS supernatant into rats caused a threefold increase in urine protein in collections from 6 to 24 h after injection. No increase in proteinuria occurred in rats injected with 70% supernatant from normal individuals. It is concluded that the FSGS factor is a low molecular weight protein with the potential to increase Palb in vitro and to cause proteinuria in vivo. (+info)
Triacylglycerol biosynthesis in rat adipose-tissue homogenates.
The optimum cofactor requirements for triacylglycerol biosynthesis in rat adipose-tissue homogenates containing mitochondrial, microsomal and cytosolic fractions were investigated. In general the optimum concentrations of cofactors for triacylglycerol biosynthesis were found to differ from those for total fatty acid esterification. The results provided further evidence for the key role of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in the regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis. Albumin was included in the incubation medium to permit the use of concentrations of added fatty acids that would swamp the effects of endogenous fatty acids. The addition of albumin had little effect on the incorporation of palmitic acid and stearic acid into lipids including triacylglycerols. By contrast, a critical concentration of albumin (about 60 muM) was required before incorporation of oleic acid or linoleic acid into triacylglycerols occurred. The system was used to study the incorporation of different 1-14C-labelled fatty acids from a mixture of unesterified fatty acids [palmitic acid 30%; stearic acid 10%; oleic acid 40%; linoleic acid 20% (molar percentages)] separately into the positions 1,2 and 3 of triacyl-sn-glycerols. In general the stereo-specific distribution of the labelled fatty acids incorporated into triacylglycerols paralleled the normal distribution of fatty acids within rat adipose-tissue triacylglycerols, suggesting that the specificities of the relevant acyltrasferases have the major role in determining the positional distribution of fatty acids within triacylglycerols. (+info)
von Willebrand factor contained in a high purity FVIII concentrate (Fanhdi) binds to platelet glycoproteins and supports platelet adhesion to subendothelium under flow conditions.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is evidence suggesting that von Willebrand factor (VWF) from high purity factor VIII concentrates could be of clinical use in the management of patients suffering from VWD. We analyzed structural and functional characteristics of VWF present in a high purity factor VIII concentrate VWFHPC (Fanhdi). The multimeric structure, the ability to bind to platelet GP Ib/IX or GP IIb/IIIa, and the capacity of VWFHPC to promote platelet adhesion on injured vessels were investigated and compared with that present in standard plasma cryoprecipitates [VWFCRYO]. DESIGN AND METHODS: Binding studies were carried out by incubating radiolabeled VWF and washed platelets, which were activated with either ristocetin (1 mg/mL; for GP Ib/IX), or thrombin (2.5 U/mL; for GP IIb/IIIa). Platelet adhesion was assessed in a perfusion system (shear rate = 800 s-1, 10 min) in which the source of VWF was added (at 0.4 or 0.8 U/mL VWF:Ag) to washed platelets and red cells suspended in a human albumin solution. The deposition of platelets onto the perfused subendothelial surface was morphometrically evaluated and expressed as percentage of surface coverage (%SC). RESULTS: The VWFHPC (152 Units VWF:RCof/mg protein; VWF:RCof/VWF:Ag = 0.97), lacked only a small proportion of high-molecular-weight multimers present in VWFCRYO. Binding affinities (Kd values, nM) of VWFHPC were similar to those of VWFCRYO (5.3 +/- 0.86 vs 5.2 +/- 0.95, for GP Ib/IX; and 11.6 +/- 2.7 vs 15.4 +/- 1.7 for GPIIb-IIIa). A slightly, though not significantly, higher binding capacity for these receptors (Bmax values, molecules/pit) was obtained for VWFHPC. The %SC in perfusions in the presence of albumin was < 10%. Addition of VWFHPC or VWFCRYO significantly increased the %SC, with values of 27.1 +/- 4.9 and 17.5 +/- 2.8%, respectively with 0.4 U/mL (p < 0.004 and p < 0.02 vs albumin); and 30.8 +/- 4.9% and 20.03 +/- 4.1%, respectively, at 0.8 U/mL (p < 0.001 and p < 0.02 vs albumin). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that VWF present in the high purity FVIII concentrate Fanhdi retains the functional capacity to bind to GPs Ib/IX and IIb/IIIa and to promote platelet adhesion onto exposed subendothelium. (+info)
Secretory cells of the peripheral pulmonary epithelium as targets for toxic agents.
The extracellular lining of the pulmonary peripheral airways is of vital importance to the lung. In this report, some aspects of the pulmonary extracellular lining and the epithelial cells believed to be responsible for its formation and secretion have been briefly reviewed. The influence of a number of toxic agents on the extracellular lining either directly or via those cells involved in its formation indicates that the extracellular lining may be important in understanding numerous toxic agent interactions with the lung. (+info)
Peritoneal clearance of leptin in CAPD patients: impact of local insulin administration.
INTRODUCTION: The ob gene product leptin is secreted by fat cells and the serum leptin levels reflects the body fat content. Markedly elevated serum leptin levels have been reported in patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to assess if the dialysate leptin levels in peritoneal dialysate are similar to what can be expected from passive diffusion or if intraperitoneal synthesis of leptin may occur. METHODS: We studied 39 patients (20 males), mean age 54+/-12 years, who had been treated with peritoneal dialysis for 17+/-12 months. Ten of the patients were diabetics of which seven used intraperitoneal insulin. A 24-h collection of dialysate was performed and dialysate and fasting blood samples were analysed for leptin, albumin and beta2-microglobulin, and the peritoneal clearances (PCl) were calculated for these solutes. RESULTS: Serum leptin (mean 47+/-76, range 3-350 ng/ml) was related to body mass index (r=0.35, P<0.05). In multiple regression analysis, serum leptin also correlated to serum TNF-alpha. Although dialysate leptin levels correlated to serum leptin, they were higher than expected from the molecular weight of 16 kD. PCl of leptin was 1.3 ml/min (range 0.2-5.9 ml/min), which was 1.6 times higher than expected from the molecular weight of leptin and PCl for albumin and beta2-microglobulin, not taking the protein binding of leptin into account. A strong correlation was found between PCI for albumin and beta2-microglobulin (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001) but neither PCl albumin, nor PCl beta2-microglobulin correlated to PCI leptin. The PCl of leptin was markedly higher in diabetics using intraperitoneal insulin (n = 7) compared to the other 32 patients (2.6+/-2.0 vs 1.1+/-0.7 ml/min, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum leptin is locally produced in the peritoneal cavity, and intraperitoneal insulin enhances local production of leptin. (+info)
The cytotoxicity of mafosfamide on G-CSF mobilized hematopoietic progenitors is reduced by SH groups of albumin--implications for further purging strategies.
The efficacy of mafosfamide purging depends on factors like incubation time, drug and erythrocyte concentration. To determine the influence of protein-bound SH groups in the incubation medium, the cytotoxicity of mafosfamide on G-CSF mobilized CD34+/- cells was evaluated by short-term culture assays and drug concentration measurements. 100 micromol/ml mafosfamide was incubated for 30 min in five buffers (PBS, PBS with 1%, 5% and 10% BSA and plasma). The mean calculated areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were 2489 +/- 198, 1561 +/- 286, 976 +/- 201, 585 +/- 62 and 605 +/- 196 micromol/l/min. The mean reductions of CFU-GM growth were 79.4%, 73.0%, 62.5%, 30.3%, 6.2% respectively. Similar results were obtained for BFU-E. Regression analysis showed a good correlation between cytotoxicity and AUCs (CFU-GM: r = 0.8195; BFU-E: r = 0.8207). This effect is well explained by the different concentrations of SH moieties in the incubation medium resulting in a higher drug binding capacity. The profound difference between AUCs and CFU-GMs in plasma and 10% BSA cannot be explained by the quantity of SH-groups. It is probably due to an additional enzymatic drug degeneration by the 3'-5'exonuclease subsite of plasma DNA polymerase. In conclusion, the concentration of albumin-associated SH groups strongly influences the cytotoxicity of mafosfamide. It has to be considered as a new and important aspect in ex vivo bone marrow purging. (+info)