Comparison of a multivalent viral vaccine program versus a univalent viral vaccine program on animal health, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot calves. (73/878)

A field study was conducted under commercial feedlot conditions at 2 sites in western Canada to determine the relative effects of a univalent viral vaccine (MLV 1) program versus a multivalent viral vaccine (MLV 4) program on animal health; feedlot performance; and carcass characteristic variables of fall-placed, auction market derived, feedlot calves. Five thousand one hundred and sixty-three calves were processed and randomly allocated to 1 of 2 experimental groups as follows: MLV 1, which received a modified live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus vaccine upon arrival at the feedlot and again at approximately 70 days on feed (DOF); or MLV 4, which received a modified live IBR virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine upon arrival at the feedlot and again at approximately 70 DOF. A total of 20 pens (10 pens at the site located near High River, Alberta and 10 pens at the site located near Vegreville, Alberta) were allocated to the study. On both a live and carcass weight basis, final weight, weight gain, and average daily gain (ADG) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in the MLV 4 group as compared with the MLV 1 group. However, there were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in DOF, daily dry matter intake, dry matter intake to gain ratio (DM:G) live, or DM:G carcass between the experimental groups. In addition, there were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences between the experimental groups in any of the carcass characteristic variables measured. The initial undifferentiated fever (UF) treatment rate was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the MLV 4 group as compared with the MLV 1 group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in the other measures of health between the experimental groups. In the economic analysis, there was a net advantage of $0.74 CDN per animal in the MLV 4 group as compared with the MLV 1 group due to lower initial UF treatment and improved ADG, even though the cost of the vaccine program was higher in the MLV 4 group.  (+info)

Mandatory reporting of HIV infection and opt-out prenatal screening for HIV infection: effect on testing rates. (74/878)

BACKGROUND: Mandatory reporting of HIV infection to public health authorities, although now common, may deter people from undergoing testing. We examined HIV testing frequency in Alberta before and after mandatory reporting was implemented. We also examined the effect on testing rates among pregnant women when Alberta adopted an opt-out approach to prenatal HIV screening. METHODS: Using data from the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, we determined the number of HIV tests done between Jan. 1, 1993, and Dec. 31, 2000, for males and females in Alberta. We used data from the Canadian Blood Services laboratories to obtain the number of tests conducted as part of the opt-out prenatal HIV testing program. Reporting of HIV infection became mandatory on May 1, 1998, and opt-out prenatal HIV testing was introduced on Sept. 1, 1998. RESULTS: Among males, the average annual percent increase in the number of HIV tests was 4.0% for the period before mandatory testing, as compared with 4.3% for the period after mandatory reporting was implemented; the difference in yearly trend was significant (p < 0.001). Among females, the average annual percent increase in the number of HIV tests was 9.2% for the period before mandatory reporting. In the month immediately following the adoption of opt-out prenatal HIV testing, the rate increased by 28%. Between 1999 and 2000, the average annual percent increase in the number of HIV tests among females was 1.4%. INTERPRETATION: The introduction of mandatory reporting of HIV infection did not appear to have a deterrent effect on rates of HIV testing. The implementation of an opt-out prenatal HIV testing policy resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of females being tested for HIV infection.  (+info)

Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in dairy herds in Alberta. (75/878)

Fifty dairy herds in Alberta were tested for the presence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by fecal culture and serum enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Individual sera (1500) were tested for antibodies to M. paratuberculosis by ELISA. Fecal samples were combined in pools of 3 (10 pools/herd) for a total of 500 pools that were cultured for M. paratuberculosis. Thirty cultures, including all 10 pools from 1 herd, were not readable due to fungal contamination. The remaining 470 cultures, representing 49 herds, yielded 16 positive pools (3.4% +/- 2.1%) from 10 herds (20.4% +/- 11.3%). The ELISA of each of the 1500 sera detected 105 (7.0% +/- 2.4%) positive sera and 20 (40.0% +/- 13.6%) positive herds, based on 2 or more individual positive sera in the herd. The true herd-level prevalence, as determined by ELISA, was 26.8% +/- 9.6%. The true herd-level prevalence, as determined by M. paratuberculosis fecal culture, ranged from 27.6% +/- 6.5% to 57.1% +/- 8.3%, depending on whether 1, 2, or all 3 individual fecal samples in the positive fecal pool were culture positive.  (+info)

Prevalence of Salmonella in dairy herds in Alberta. (76/878)

Fifty dairy herds in Alberta were tested for the presence of Salmonella. Four (8%) dairy herds had at least 1 cow shedding Salmonella. Different isolates were identified by serotyping, phage typing, and antibiotic resistance patterns. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were determined for unique isolates.  (+info)

Investigation of an anthrax outbreak in Alberta in 1999 using a geographic information system. (77/878)

A Geographic Information System was used to document an anthrax outbreak in Alberta in 1999 and to describe the physical and environmental conditions of the area. The majority of infected farms were located on poorly drained organic soils. Regulatory agencies should consider adopting this tool for animal disease outbreak investigations.  (+info)

Injury risk in men's Canada West University football. (78/878)

Injury and participation information was collected over 5 years (1993-1997) on varsity men's football players in the Canada West Universities Athletic Association. The locations of acute time-loss injuries or neurologic injures were coded as head and neck, upper extremity (shoulder to hand), or lower extremity (hip to foot). Poisson regression-based generalized estimating equations were used to estimate rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Injury rates were higher during games as compared with practice periods (for the head and neck, rate ratio (RR) = 9.75 (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.50, 12.67); for upper extremities, RR = 5.76 (95% CI: 4.46, 7.45); and for lower extremities, RR = 7.06 (95% CI: 6.03, 8.25)). In dry-field game situations, head and neck injury rates were 1.59 times higher on artificial turf than on natural grass (95% CI: 1.04, 2.42). Lower extremity game injury rates were higher on artificial turf than on natural grass under both dry (RR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.35, 2.48) and wet (RR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.52) field conditions. Injury rates increased with every additional year of participation. Past injury increased the rate of subsequent injury. The effect of an artificial field surface may be related to infrequent use. Risk factors for injury included participation in a game, playing on artificial turf, being a veteran player, and having a past injury.  (+info)

The cost of major comorbidity in people with diabetes mellitus. (79/878)

BACKGROUND: People with diabetes mellitus are more likely to have cardiovascular, renal and ophthalmic comorbidity than those without diabetes. Information on the economic impact of diabetes and its complications on the Canadian health care system is limited. METHODS: To estimate health care expenditures for diabetes and its major complications, we identified people with diabetes in 1996 in Saskatchewan, using the administrative databases of Saskatchewan Health. We grouped utilization and expenditure data for prescription drugs, physician services, hospitalizations, day surgery procedures and dialysis services according to cardiovascular, renal and ophthalmic services, according to billing codes and the American Hospital Formulary Services classification for prescription drugs. RESULTS: Of the 38 124 people identified (48.5% female and 9.7% registered Indians), 46.6% had cardiovascular-related records, 19.8% ophthalmic-related records and 6.6% renal-related records. Registered Indians had significantly fewer (p < 0.001) cardiovascular-related records than the rest of the diabetic population (35.1% v. 47.9%, respectively) but more renal- related records (11.7% v. 6.0%, respectively). The total 1996 Saskatchewan Health expenditure for the study group, within the observed categories, was estimated to be $134.3 million, of which $35.5 million (26.4%) was for cardiovascular-related services, $10 million (7.5%) for renal-related services and $3.3 million (2.5%) for ophthalmic-related services. INTERPRETATION: In 1996, 36.4% of health care expenditures for people with diabetes was attributable to major comorbidity. Actions to prevent or control such comorbidity will yield significant cost savings.  (+info)

Strain variation among Bordetella pertussis isolates from Quebec and Alberta provinces of Canada from 1985 to 1994. (80/878)

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gene typing were able to differentiate among 3,597 Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating in Alberta and Quebec Provinces, Canada, from 1985 to 1994 and distinguish them from the strains used in vaccine production. This study provides a baseline for continued surveillance of prevalent and emerging strains of B. pertussis in Canada.  (+info)