Very low prevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in western Canadian cattle. (25/878)

Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a lentivirus that causes disease in cattle. Despite the large cattle industry in western Canada, the presence of BIV has not been examined to date. Genomic DNA, derived from semen and buffy coat samples, was analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for the gag, pol, and env genes of BIV. Despite utilizing a procedure that detected a minimum of 10 proviral copies, BIV sequences were not amplified in any of 317 buffy coat and 50 semen samples that were obtained from an archive that included 27 cattle breeds, collected from different sources in Alberta (1980-1999). In the 367 DNA samples examined, there was no evidence of BIV infection, suggesting that the prevalence of BIV infection was very low.  (+info)

Educational instruction on a hospital information system for medical students during their surgical rotations. (26/878)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit, for medical students on their surgical rotations, of real-time educational instruction during order entry on a hospital information system. DESIGN: Prospective controlled trial. INTERVENTION: Access to educational information during computerized order entry. SUBJECTS: Medical students in their final year at the University of Calgary. MAIN OUTCOMES: Attainment of the surgery rotation educational objectives, as measured by performance on a multiple-choice examination. METHODS: Before they began their surgical rotations, students at two hospitals took a multiple-choice examination to measure their knowledge of surgery. One hospital had an information system with computerized order entry; students at this hospital had access, while composing orders, to educational material on the system. The other hospital did not have an information system; students there wrote orders on a paper chart. At the end of the rotation, all students took another multiple-choice examination. RESULTS: Of 50 eligible students, 45 agreed to participate in the project, 21 in the treatment group and 24 in the control group. Pre-rotation scores were similar for the two groups (43 percent in the treatment group and 40 percent in the control group; SD, 10 percent). Post-rotation scores were identical for the two groups (65 percent in the treatment group and 65 percent in the control group; SD, 12 percent). A t-test analysis revealed no significant difference in performance on the examinations between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study did not demonstrate a learning advantage for medical students who have access to educational material on a hospital information system.  (+info)

Physicians' prevention practices and incidence of neonatal group B streptococcal disease in 2 Canadian regions. (27/878)

BACKGROUND: The impact of expert guidelines on the prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease has not been studied in Canada. Our aim was to determine physician practices with regard to this condition before and after publication of Canadian guidelines and to monitor concurrent trends in the incidence of neonatal GBS disease. METHODS: We used repeat cross-sectional surveys, distributed by mail to all family practitioners and obstetricians attending deliveries in Alberta and in the Metropolitan Toronto and Peel region, Ontario, in 1994, 1995 and 1997, to document prevention practices. Audits were conducted for a subset of respondents to confirm reported practices. Population-based surveillance involving all microbiology laboratories in both regions for 1995-1998 was used to document rates of neonatal disease. RESULTS: The overall survey response rates were as follows: for 1994, 1128/1458 (77%); for 1995, 1054/1450 (73%); and for 1997, 1030/1421 (72%). During 1995 and 1997, significantly more obstetric care providers were screening at least 75% of pregnant women in their practices than had been the case in 1994 (747/916 [82%] and 693/812 [85%] v. 754/981 [77%]; p < 0.001). The percentage of obstetric care providers who reported practice that conformed completely with any of 3 consensus prevention strategies increased from 10% in 1994 to 29% in 1997 (p < 0.001). There was a concurrent overall significant decrease in incidence of neonatal GBS disease during the same period. INTERPRETATION: The adoption by Canadian obstetric care providers of neonatal GBS prevention practices recommended by expert groups was slow but improved significantly over time. These findings highlight the difficulties associated with achieving compliance with diverse and frequently changing recommendations. However, the associated incidence of neonatal GBS disease, which was low or declining, suggests that efforts to disseminate current GBS prevention guidelines have been moderately successful.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in beef cattle in northern Alberta. (28/878)

Blood samples were collected from 1806 pregnancy-tested cows from 174 herds at a northern Alberta auction mart in the fall of 1998. One hundred sixty-two (9.0%) of these samples were positive for antibodies to N. caninum. Thirty-five of 260 samples (13.5%) collected from the same region in the 1980s were also serologically positive for N. caninum.  (+info)

Should the use of smoking cessation products be promoted by dental offices? An evidence-based report. (29/878)

To address the issue of whether dentists should promote the use of smoking cessation products, an evidence-based methodology was applied to find answers to 3 questions: Does tobacco use affect periodontal health? Are dentists effective cessation counsellors? Do smoking cessation products improve the effectiveness of cessation interventions? MEDLINE and manual searches uncovered relevant evidence to use in developing evidence-based recommendations. There is fair evidence that tobacco use is a major factor in the progression and treatment outcome of adult periodontitis and that quitting tobacco use is beneficial to periodontal health. There is good evidence to recommend that oral health professionals provide cessation counselling. There is good evidence to recommend the use of smoking cessation adjuncts. In view of the strong supporting evidence, dental offices should incorporate systematic smoking cessation services into routine patient care and should promote the use of proven cessation products by patients who are attempting to quit.  (+info)

Postsanatorium pattern of antituberculous drug resistance in the Canadian-born population of western Canada: effect of outpatient care and immigration. (30/878)

Concurrent with the shift in tuberculosis case management from sanatorium to outpatient setting was a shift in the continent of origin (Europe to Asia) of most new immigrants to CANADA: To assess the impact of these two events on antituberculous drug resistance in the Canadian-born population, the authors reviewed the results of six drug resistance surveys conducted in the two westernmost provinces of Canada between 1963 and 1994. Survey data were complemented by new molecular diagnostic and contact tracing data collected over 5 years (1994--1998) in one of the three large urban centers of the region. Over the time spanned by the surveys, there was no increase in the proportion of all Canadian-born tuberculosis cases who relapsed or the proportion of all Canadian-born relapsed cases who were drug resistant (approximately 12--13%). In addition, the prevalence of primary drug resistance among Canadian-born cases did not increase; rates consistently averaged between 2% and 5% despite a doubling of primary resistance rates among foreign-born cases. Molecular diagnostic and contact tracing data strongly supported the survey findings. The authors concluded that outpatient care and immigration have thus far had no measurable impact on the pattern of antituberculous drug resistance in the Canadian-born population of western CANADA:  (+info)

Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta. (31/878)

Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels.  (+info)

Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic bison herds in northwestern Alberta. (32/878)

A fecal survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth eggs found in 431 domestic bison from 22 herds. Eggs detected (percent of herds affected in parentheses) were: strongyle-type (100%), Capillaria sp. (63.6%), Moniezia sp. (54.6%), Nematodirus sp. (50%), Trichuris sp. (40.9%), and Strongyloides sp. (9.1%).  (+info)