Different prevalences of Renibacterium salmoninarum detected by ELISA in Alaskan chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha spawned from freshwater and seawater.
Soluble antigen of Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) was detected by a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at significantly higher prevalences in adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that matured in freshwater than in the same cohort of fish spawned after maturation in seawater. The cumulative results were consistent during 4 yr of comparison at the Little Port Walter Hatchery on Baranof Island, Alaska, USA. Possible causes for this difference are discussed. Maturation of chinook salmon broodstock in seawater has become a practical strategy at this hatchery to reduce the prevalence of Rs-positive parent fish and the numbers of culled eggs. (+info)
Mercury in Alaskan Eskimo mothers and infants.
The potential danger of natural mercury accumulation in the diet of the Eskimo is evaluated through mercury levels determined in cord blood, placenta, maternal blood, hair, and milk of 38 maternal-infant pairs from Anchorage and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Although mercury levels are not discernably dangerous, trends to larger accumulations in maternal and fetal RBC and placental tissue with proximity to the sea and consumption of seals during pregnancy provide the basis for considering possible indicators of neonatal involvement. Mercury level in RBC from cord blood appeared as the best potential indicator of this involvement, although relationships with the mother's diet and level of mercury in the placenta also appear useful. In this area, average and maximal mercury levels in cord blood are 39 and 78 ng/ml, respectively, far below the acknowledged toxic level in infants of these mothers who eat seals or fish every day during their pregnancy. (+info)
Clinical services assessment and reengineering: lessons learned.
Healthcare enterprises often "acquire and install" picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) without examining many of the care delivery processes and information flows that will be affected. Many times these unexamined factors can delay or be the cause of failure of the PACS project. This article presents issues that were worked through as part of a PACS clinical services assessment and reengineering analysis for several US military medical treatment facilities. (+info)
Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup (Bunyaviridae) virus infections in native populations of Alaska.
This study investigated the geographic distribution and prevalence of antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in Native populations of Alaska, and demographic and ecologic risk factors associated with exposure. Sera (n = 1,635) from 18 communities were screened using an ELISA. All age groups were tested for antibodies to Jamestown Canyon (JC), Inkoo (INK), snowshoe hare (SSH), and Northway (NOR) viruses; persons > or = 45 years old (n = 90) from six communities were additionally tested for antibodies to Tahyna (TAH), Batai (BAT), Cache Valley (CV), and Sindbis (SIN) viruses. Thirty free-ranging mammals were tested by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for antibodies to all eight viruses and to Getah (GET) virus. In Natives, overall antibody prevalence was 24.9% (JC = 17.6%, monotypic JC = 6.5%, INK = 11.1%, monotypic INK = 0.6%, SSH = 6.8%, monotypic SSH = 3.5%, and NOR = 6.2%). Five TAH, CV, and BAT virus exposures may be serologic cross-reactions, and no SIN virus antibodies were detected. Sindbis-like virus antibodies were found in 30% of the mammals. Most mammals had antibodies to NOR (83.3%) and California serogroup (70.0%) viruses; no GET virus exposures were found. Significant risk factors for human bunyavirus exposures were age group, ethnic-linguistic group, biotic province, climate zone, terrestrial vegetation, and presence of some ungulates and small mammals in communities. Sex was not a significant risk factor. (+info)
Severe respiratory syncytial virus disease in Alaska native children. RSV Alaska Study Group.
Hospitalization rates for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection range from 1 to 20/1000 infants. To determine the rate and severity of RSV infections requiring hospitalization for infants in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) Delta of Alaska, a 3-year prospective surveillance study was conducted. The annual rate of RSV hospitalization for YK Delta infants <1 year of age was 53-249/1000. RSV infection was the most frequent cause of infant hospitalization. RSV disease severity did not differ among non-high-risk infants in the YK Delta and at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH). On average, 1/125 infants born in the YK Delta required mechanical ventilation for RSV infection. During the peak season, approximately $1034/child <3 years of age was spent on RSV hospitalization in the YK Delta. In YK Delta infants +info)
Outbreak of influenza A infection among travelers--Alaska and the Yukon Territory, May-June 1999.
On June 18, 1999, CDC and Health Canada received reports from public health authorities in Alaska and the Yukon Territory about clusters of febrile respiratory illness and associated pneumonia among travelers and tourism workers. This report presents information about the outbreak. Laboratory evidence, including rapid influenza A antigen-detection tests and viral cultures from respiratory specimens, has implicated influenza A virus as the cause of illness. (+info)
Epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in Pacific herring from the spawn-on-kelp fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.
Both the prevalence and tissue titer of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) increased in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi following their introduction into net pens (pounds) used in the closed pound spawn-on-kelp (SOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska. VHSV was also found in water samples from inside and outside the SOK pounds after herring had been confined for several days; however, water samples taken near wild free-ranging, spawning herring either failed to test positive or tested weakly positive for virus. Little or no virus was found in tissue samples from free-ranging, spawning herring captured from the vicinity of the pounds, nor did the prevalence of VHSV increase following spawning as it did in impounded herring. The data indicated that increased prevalences of VHSV were correlated with confinement of herring for the closed pound SOK fishery and that infection was spread within the pounds through waterborne exposure to virus particles originating from impounded fish. In addition, pounds containing predominantly young fish had higher prevalences of VHSV, suggesting that older fish may be partially immune, perhaps as a result of previous infection with the virus. Operation of SOK pounds during spawning seasons in which young herring predominate may amplify the disease and possibly exacerbate the population fluctuations observed in wild herring stocks. (+info)
Asthma prevalence among American Indian and Alaska Native children.
OBJECTIVES: Although asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness in the United States, little is known about its prevalence among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children. The authors used the latest available household survey data to estimate the prevalence of asthma in this population. METHODS: The authors analyzed data for children ages 1 through 17 years from the 1987 Survey of American Indians and Alaska Natives (SAIAN) and the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES). At least one member of each AI/AN household included in the SAIAN was eligible for services through the Indian Health Service. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of parent-reported asthma was 7.06% among 2288 AI/AN children ages 1-17 (95% CI 5.08, 9.04), compared with a US estimate of 8.40% for children ages 1-17 based on the 1987 NMES (95% CI 7.65, 9.15). The AI/AN sample was too small to yield stable estimates for a comparison between AI/AN children and all US children when the data were stratified according to household income and metropolitan vs non-metropolitan residence. The unadjusted asthma prevalence rates were similar for AI/AN children and for children in the NMES sample. CONCLUSIONS: In 1987, the prevalence of parent-reported asthma was similar for AI/AN children in the SAIAN sample and for children in the NMES sample. More recent data are needed to better understand the current prevalence of asthma among AI/AN children. (+info)