Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase: conformational change in the flexible region around Arg334 is required during the transaldimination process.
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalytic mechanism has been proposed to proceed through two consecutive intermediates (i.e., Michaelis complex and the external aldimine). Limited proteolysis of AADC that preferentially digested at the C-terminal side of Arg334 was slightly retarded in the presence of dihydroxyphenyl acetate that formed a stable Michaelis complex. On the contrary, AADC was scarcely digested in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester that formed a stable external aldimine. Similar protection by the substrate analogs was observed in the chemical modification experiment. From these results, we concluded that the region around Arg334 must be exposed and flexible in the unliganded state, and forming the Michaelis complex generated a subtle conformational change, then underwent marked conformational change during the subsequent transaldimination process prerequisite to forming the external aldimine. For further analyses, we constructed a mutant gene encoding in tandem the two peptides of AADC cleaved at the Asn327-Met328 bond inside the putative flexible region. The gene product, fragmentary AADC, was still active with L-dopa as substrate, but its k(cat) value was decreased 57-fold, and the Km value was increased 9-fold compared with those of the wild-type AADC. The absorption spectra of the fragmentary AADC in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester showed shift in the equilibrium of the transaldimination from the external aldimine to the Michaelis complex. Tryptic digestion of the fragmentary AADC removed seven amino acid residues, Met328-Arg334, and resulted in complete inactivation. Susceptibility of the fragmentary enzyme to trypsin was not changed by L-dopa methyl ester revealing the loss of appropriate conformational change in the flexible region induced by substrate binding. From these results we propose that the conformational change in the flexible region is required during the transaldimination process. (+info)
Role of tyrosine 265 of alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus.
Tyrosine 265 (Y265) of Bacillus stearothermophilus is believed to serve as a catalytic base specific to the L-enantiomer of a substrate amino acid by removing (or returning) an alpha-hydrogen from (or to) the isomer on the basis of the X-ray structure of the enzyme [Stamper, C.G., Morollo, A.A., and Ringe, D. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 10438-10443]. We found that the Y265-->Ala mutant (Y265A) enzyme is virtually inactive as a catalyst for alanine racemization. We examined the role of Y265 further with beta-chloroalanine as a substrate with the expectation that the Y265A mutant only catalyzes the alpha,beta-elimination of the D-enantiomer of beta-chloroalanine. However, L-beta-chloroalanine also served as a substrate; this enantiomer was rather better as a substrate than its antipode. Moreover, the mutant enzyme was as equally active as the wild-type enzyme in the elimination reaction. These findings indicate that Y265 is essential for alanine racemization but not for beta-chloroalanine elimination. (+info)
Transcriptional control of peptidoglycan precursor synthesis during sporulation in Bacillus sphaericus.
Synthesis of enzymes functional in the synthesis of nucleotide precursors of peptidoglycan ceases upon initiation of sporulation in Bacillus sphaericus. During sporulation, two periods of synthesis of these enzymes occur. The first starts at spore septum formation and is conincident with forespore engulfment; it involves the synthesis of those enzymes required for making the precursor of vegetative-type peptidoglycan, including L-lysyl ligase but no mesodiaminopimelyl ligase. The second period occurs shortly before the appearance of cortex. It involves the synthesis of diaminopimelyl ligase and the other enzymes needed for making the precursor of cortical peptidoglycan, but not lysyl ligase. Both events are a consequence of derepression at the level of transcription. Neither period of synthesis occurs in asporogenous mutants whose morphological block is at the point of spore septum formation. (+info)
Tyrosine 265 of alanine racemase serves as a base abstracting alpha-hydrogen from L-alanine: the counterpart residue to lysine 39 specific to D-alanine.
Alanine racemase of Bacillus stearothermophilus has been proposed to catalyze alanine racemization by means of two catalytic bases: lysine 39 (K39) abstracting specifically the alpha-hydrogen of D-alanine and tyrosine 265 (Y265) playing the corresponding role for the antipode L-alanine. The role of K39 as indicated has already been verified [Watanabe, A., Kurokawa, Y., Yoshimura, T., Kurihara, T., Soda, K., and Esaki, N. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 4189-4194]. We here present evidence for the functioning of Y265 as the base catalyst specific to L-alanine. The Y265-->Ala mutant enzyme (Y265A), like Y265S and Y265F, was a poor catalyst for alanine racemization. However, Y265A and Y265S catalyzed transamination with D-alanine much more rapidly than the wild-type enzyme, and the bound coenzyme, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), was converted to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). The rate of transamination catalyzed by Y265F was about 9% of that by the wild-type enzyme. However, Y265A, Y265S, and Y265F were similar in that L-alanine was inert as a substrate in transamination. The apo-form of the wild-type enzyme catalyzes the abstraction of tritium non-specifically from both (4'S)- and (4'R)-[4'-(3)H]PMP in the presence of pyruvate. In contrast, apo-Y265A abstracts tritium virtually from only the R-isomer. This indicates that the side-chain of Y265 abstracts the alpha-hydrogen of L-alanine and transfers it supra-facially to the pro-S position at C-4' of PMP. Y265 is the counterpart residue to K39 that transfers the alpha-hydrogen of D-alanine to the pro-R position of PMP. (+info)
A eukaryotic alanine racemase gene involved in cyclic peptide biosynthesis.
The cyclic tetrapeptide HC-toxin is an essential virulence determinant for the plant pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus carbonum and an inhibitor of histone deacetylase. The major form of HC-toxin contains the D-isomers of Ala and Pro. The non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that synthesizes HC-toxin has only one epimerizing domain for conversion of L-Pro to D-Pro; the source of D-Ala has remained unknown. Here we present the cloning and characterization of a new gene involved in HC-toxin biosynthesis, TOXG. TOXG is present only in HC-toxin-producing (Tox2(+)) isolates of C. carbonum. TOXG is able to support D-Ala-independent growth of a strain of Escherichia coli defective in D-Ala synthesis. A C. carbonum strain with both of its copies of TOXG mutated grows normally in culture, and although it no longer makes the three forms of HC-toxin that contain D-Ala, it still makes a minor form of HC-toxin that contains Gly in place of D-Ala. The addition of D-Ala to the culture medium restores production of the D-Ala-containing forms of HC-toxin by the toxG mutant. The toxG mutant has only partially reduced virulence. It is concluded that TOXG encodes an alanine racemase whose function is to synthesize D-Ala for incorporation into HC-toxin. (+info)
The manifold of vitamin B6 dependent enzymes.
Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (vitamin B6) binding enzymes form a large superfamily that contains at least five different folds. The availability of an increasing number of known three-dimensional structures for members of this superfamily has allowed a detailed structural classification. Most progress has been made with the fold type I or aspartate aminotransferase family. (+info)
Serine and alanine racemase activities of VanT: a protein necessary for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174.
Vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus gallinarum results from the production of UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide[D-Ser]. VanT, a membrane-bound serine racemase, is one of three proteins essential for this resistance. To investigate the selectivity of racemization of L-Ser or L-Ala by VanT, a strain of Escherichia coli TKL-10 that requires D-Ala for growth at 42 degrees C was used as host for transformation experiments using plasmids containing the full-length vanT from Ent. gallinarum or the alanine racemase gene (alr) of Bacillus stearothermophilus: both plasmids were able to complement E. coli TKL-10 at 42 degrees C. No alanine or serine racemase activities were detected in the host strain E. coli TKL-10 grown at 30, 34 or 37 degrees C. Serine and alanine racemase activities were found almost exclusively (96%) in the membrane fraction of E. coli TKL-10/pCA4(vanT): the alanine racemase activity of VanT was 14% of the serine racemase activity in both E. coli TKL-10/pCA4(vanT) and E. coli XL-1 Blue/pCA4(vanT). Alanine racemase activity was present mainly (95%) in the cytoplasmic fraction of E. coli TKL-10/pJW40(alr), with a trace (1.6%) of serine racemase activity. Additionally, DNA encoding the soluble domain of VanT was cloned and expressed in E. coli M15 as a His-tagged polypeptide and purified: this polypeptide also exhibited both serine and alanine racemase activities; the latter was approximately 18% of the serine racemase activity, similar to that of the full-length, membrane-bound enzyme. N-terminal sequencing of the purified His-tagged polypeptide revealed a single amino acid sequence, indicating that the formation of heterodimers between subunits of His-tagged C-VanT and endogenous alanine racemases from E. coli was unlikely. The authors conclude that the membrane-bound serine racemase VanT also has alanine racemase activity but is able to racemize serine more efficiently than alanine, and that the cytoplasmic domain is responsible for the racemase activity. (+info)
Functional characterization of alanine racemase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a eucaryotic counterpart to bacterial alanine racemase.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe has an open reading frame, which we named alr1(+), encoding a putative protein similar to bacterial alanine racemase. We cloned the alr1(+) gene in Escherichia coli and purified the gene product (Alr1p), with an M(r) of 41,590, to homogeneity. Alr1p contains pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme and catalyzes the racemization of alanine with apparent K(m) and V(max) values as follows: for L-alanine, 5.0 mM and 670 micromol/min/mg, respectively, and for D-alanine, 2.4 mM and 350 micromol/min/mg, respectively. The enzyme is almost specific to alanine, but L-serine and L-2-aminobutyrate are racemized slowly at rates 3.7 and 0.37% of that of L-alanine, respectively. S. pombe uses D-alanine as a sole nitrogen source, but deletion of the alr1(+) gene resulted in retarded growth on the same medium. This indicates that S. pombe has catabolic pathways for both enantiomers of alanine and that the pathway for L-alanine coupled with racemization plays a major role in the catabolism of D-alanine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae differs markedly from S. pombe: S. cerevisiae uses L-alanine but not D-alanine as a sole nitrogen source. Moreover, D-alanine is toxic to S. cerevisiae. However, heterologous expression of the alr1(+) gene enabled S. cerevisiae to grow efficiently on D-alanine as a sole nitrogen source. The recombinant yeast was relieved from the toxicity of D-alanine. (+info)