(1/190) Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in HIV infected patients.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence and extent of autonomic dysfunction in HIV infected individuals of one ethnic group. DESIGN: Prospective, age-sex matched study. METHODS: 25 patients (seven asymptomatic (HIV), eight AIDS related complex (ARC), 10 AIDS) and 25 controls were recruited from patients and staff at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Autonomic function was assessed by measurement of pulse rate variability on standing, rest, deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, isometric exercise, cold face test, and mental stress. Blood pressure was measured during standing, supine resting, and on Valsalva manoeuvre. CD4 count was correlated with number of abnormal test results. RESULTS: 21 patients had at least one abnormal test of autonomic function compared with one control (p < 0.0001). There were significant differences between AIDS patients and controls for supine heart rate (p < 0.001), Valsalva ratio (p = 0.05), and cold face test (p = 0.05), and almost significant results for mental stress (p = 0.051). Evidence of autonomic hypersensitivity was found in response to exercise and/or mental stress in some patients with HIV or ARC. No difference was found in blood pressure measurements. Abnormalities in autonomic function occurred at all CD4 counts and all patients with four abnormal tests of heart rate variation had a CD4 count less than 300 x 10(6)/l. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of substantial autonomic dysfunction in AIDS patients compared with controls and mild abnormalities in the majority of HIV infected patients studied irrespective of CD4 count. Autonomic hypersensitivity may precede loss of function in some cases.  (+info)

(2/190) Localisation of HHV-8 in AIDS related lymphadenopathy.

BACKGROUND: Many lymph node abnormalities have been described in AIDS. These include opportunistic infections that sometimes result in spindle cell pseudotumours, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), malignant lymphoma (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's), and florid reactive hyperplasia. Among these, reactive hyperplasia is the most common manifestation of AIDS related lymphadenopathy. AIM: To examine whether human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the aetiological agent of KS, can be localised in AIDS related lymphadenopathy and whether its appearance in such nodes is predictive of Kaposi's sarcoma development. METHODS: A series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive men (n = 21) with AIDS related lymphadenopathy who at the time of presentation had KS or subsequently developed KS (n = 5) were examined. The prevalence of HHV-8 was assessed in these patients using solution phase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time TaqMan quantitative PCR, and in cell amplification techniques (PCR in situ hybridisation (PCR-ISH) and labelled primer driven in cell amplification). RESULTS: Using standard solution phase PCR in a nested format, only two of the 21 patients with AIDS related lymphadenopathy were positive for HHV-8. The lymph node of one of these patients contained KS lesions. Three HHV-8 positive patients were identified using TaqMan PCR (the original two positive patients and one additional patient). All of the positive patients either subsequently developed KS (n = 2) or had KS at the time of diagnosis (n = 1). Two additional patients subsequently developed KS, but were negative for HHV-8 by solution phase PCR and TaqMan PCR. Using PCR-ISH, HHV-8 amplicons were identified in some lymphoid cells (in one patient) and in spindle cells of the KS lesion in another. The positive lymphoid cells were predominantly concentrated in B cell areas of the affected lymph nodes, confirming the B cell tropism exhibited by HHV-8. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of HHV-8 in AIDS related lymphadenopathy is predictive of KS development and probably represents seeding of HHV-8 infected B cells from the peripheral blood. These findings support a role for HHV-8 in the pathobiology of KS.  (+info)

(3/190) Risk factors for tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. A case-control study in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil (1985-1996).

The objective of this study was to identify tuberculosis risk factors and possible surrogate markers among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at the HIV outpatient clinic of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte. We reviewed the demographic, social-economical and medical data of 477 HIV-infected individuals evaluated from 1985 to 1996. The variables were submitted to an univariate and stratified analysis. Aids related complex (ARC), past history of pneumonia, past history of hospitalization, CD4 count and no antiretroviral use were identified as possible effect modifiers and confounding variables, and were submitted to logistic regression analysis by the stepwise method. ARC had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.5 (CI 95% - 1.2-10.8) for tuberculosis development. Past history of pneumonia (OR 1.7 - CI 95% 0.6-5.2) and the CD4 count (OR 0.4 - CI 0. 2-1.2) had no statistical significance. These results show that ARC is an important clinical surrogate for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Despite the need of confirmation in future studies, these results suggest that the ideal moment for tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis could be previous to the introduction of antiretroviral treatment or even just after the diagnosis of HIV infection.  (+info)

(4/190) Central pontine myelinolysis complicating treatment of multicentric Castleman's disease and Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS.

An HIV positive black African woman presented with widespread lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia that had been ascribed to tuberculosis. Lymph node biopsy showed both Kaposi's sarcoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. Despite antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy the patient deteriorated, developing confusion and dysphasia. A cranial magnetic resonance scan showed central pontine myelinolysis. Despite supportive therapy the patient died.  (+info)

(5/190) Epstein-Barr virus and HIV play no direct role in persistent generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome.

Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) and polyclonal B cell activation are features of infection with HIV. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and HIV are known to activate B cells in vitro, but whether they are important B cell activators in patients infected with HIV is less clear. In this study, lymph node tissue was obtained from 10 patients with PGL and assessed for evidence of EBV and HIV gene sequences. DNA was extracted and specific viral gene sequences identified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). EBV sequences were difficult to detect in the PGL tissue, with a signal intensity similar to that of other benign and malignant lymphoid conditions not associated with EBV. HIV sequences were also rare in the PGL tissue, consistent with HIV infection of the small number of peripheral blood cells and nodal T cells likely to be present in such a sample. These findings suggest that the polyclonal B cell activation typical of HIV is not driven by direct EBV or HIV infection of B cells.  (+info)

(6/190) Mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients produce factors which enhance functional activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils from healthy subjects.

The influence of mononuclear cell supernatants (MNCS) from nine healthy donors and 35 HIV-infected patients (17 with lymphoadenopathy syndrome (LAS), 15 with ARC and three with AIDS) on functional activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from healthy donors was investigated. MNC after short-term cultivation (24 h) produced factors which enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and chemotaxis of PMN. This augmentation did not depend on stimulation of MNC by mitogens (lipopolysaccharide Escherichia coli (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A)) or on activation of PMN by FMLP. After 48 h of cultivation only MNC stimulated by LPS produced these factors. MNCS from HIV-infected patients provoked a more pronounced augmentation of PMN CL compared with MNCS from healthy subjects. This enhancement was observed in patients at all stages of infection, but was more pronounced in patients with LAS. MNCS impact on PMN CL was not connected with proliferative activity of MNC but was correlated with the level of CD4 cells. It was shown that removal of adherent cells from MNC fraction resulted in decreased MNCS impact. Treatment of MNCS by antibody to IL-1 beta, IL-8, interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) did not decrease MNCS impact on PMN CL.  (+info)

(7/190) In situ demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus in intravenous drug abusers with generalized lymphadenopathy.

We have studied by the in situ hybridization method the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA genome in lymph node tissues from 11 patients with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Using a biotinylated EBV DNA probe, we demonstrated EBV nucleic acid in scattered germinal centre cells in eight of the 11 cases. Our results suggest that EBV is not a determinant factor in the pathogenesis of this lymphadenopathy, but support its possible implication in B cell malignant transformation in cases of AIDS-associated lymphoma.  (+info)

(8/190) A controlled trial comparing continued zidovudine with didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group.

BACKGROUND: Although zidovudine is effective in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, its efficacy may decline with prolonged use. Didanosine is another inhibitor of HIV reverse transcriptase. We evaluated the effectiveness of changing anti-HIV treatment from zidovudine to didanosine. METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind study involved 913 patients who had tolerated zidovudine for at least 16 weeks. The patients had the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), AIDS-related complex with less than or equal to 300 CD4 cells per cubic milliliter, or asymptomatic HIV infection with less than or equal to 200 CD4 cells per cubic milliliter. They were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg per day of zidovudine, 750 mg per day of didanosine, or 500 mg per day of didanosine. RESULTS: There were significantly fewer new AIDS-defining events and deaths among the 298 subjects assigned to 500 mg per day of didanosine than among the subjects who continued to receive zidovudine (relative risk, 1.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.82; P = 0.015). With 750 mg of didanosine, there was no clear benefit over zidovudine (relative risk, 1.10; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.42). The efficacy of didanosine was unrelated to the duration of previous zidovudine treatment. In the two didanosine groups, there were improvements in the number of CD4 cells (P less than 0.001 for both groups) and in p24 antigen levels (P = 0.03 in the 500-mg group; P = 0.005 in the 750-mg group), as compared with the zidovudine group. CONCLUSIONS: Changing treatment from zidovudine to 500 mg per day of didanosine appears to slow the progression of HIV disease.  (+info)