Some leptospira agglutinins detected in domestic animals in British Columbia.
During a period of six years 7,555 bovine sera, 421 canine sera, 251 porcine sera and 135 equine sera were tested for agglutinins to Leptospira interrogans serotypes canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, pomona and sejroe. The bovine sera reacted predominantly with hardjo and/or sejroe at a rate of 15% compared to 3.5% with pomona. Breeding or abortion problems were associated with pomona but not with sejroe/hardjo agglutinins. The canine sera reacted to canicola (9.9%y and icterohemorrhagiae (5.4%), tcted predominantly with canicola (8.9%) and icterohemorrhagiae (8.1%). (+info)
Platelet high affinity low density lipoprotein binding and import of lipoprotein derived phospholipids.
The binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the platelet cell membrane could facilitate the transfer of phospholipids from LDL to the platelets. A polyclonal antibody against the platelet glycoproteins IIb/IIIa inhibited the high affinity binding of 125I-LDL by up to 80%. The transfer of pyrene (py)-labeled sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from LDL to the platelets was unaffected by the antibody. The lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reduced the binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by approximately 80%. In contrast, the lectin stimulated the transfer of SM from LDL into the platelets by about three-fold. WGA also specifically augmented the transfer of py-SM between lipid vesicles and the platelets, the stimulation being abolished in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine. Dextran sulfate (DS) increased the specific binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by up to 2.8-fold. On the other hand, the import of LDL-derived py-phospholipids was unaffected by DS. Together, the results indicate that the phospholipid transfer from LDL to the platelets is independent of the high affinity LDL binding to the platelets and is specifically stimulated by WGA. Thus, the interactions of platelets with LDL phospholipids differ markedly from those with the apoprotein components of the lipoproteins. (+info)
Role of nonagglutinating antibody in the protracted immunity of vaccinated mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.
Effective immunization against infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to evaluate because agglutinin levels decline rapidly. Because fractionation of hyperimmune sera often yields more specific antibody than can be accounted for by direct agglutination tests, an immunoglobulin-specific assay based on antiglobulin augmentation was used to characterize antibody responses of C3H/HeJ mice vaccinated with P. aeruginosa type 2 lipopolysaccharide. Nonagglutinating antibodies, initially detected at 2 weeks post-primary vaccination, were predominantly immunoglobulin G after 5 weeks, and they remained elevated at levels usually 32-fold higher than the direct titer throughout the 4-month study period. The sequential production of immunoglobulin M, then immunoglobulin G, followed that found in orthodox immunological responses. Sera that contained nonagglutinating antibodies but not direct agglutinins (14 to 16 weeks) enhanced phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa type 2 by macrophages from unimmunized mice and passively immunized mice against lethal challenge doses; bactericidal activity of these sera was not demonstrated in the presence or absence of complement. When challenged with 1, 10, and 100 50% lethal doses at 16 weeks, survival rates of actively immunized mice were significantly higher than those of unvaccinated mice (P < 0.001). Thus, at a time when no direct agglutinins were detectable, the augmented system detected nonagglutinating antibodies that could confer protracted resistance in vaccinated mice to pseudomonas infection. (+info)
Expression of DMBT1, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, is frequently lost in lung cancer.
DMBT1 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene located at 10q25.3-26.1. Homozygous deletion of the gene was found in a subset of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme; lack of expression was noted in the majority of these tumors. In adult tissues, DMBT1 is highly expressed only in lung and small intestine tissues, indicating its important role in these organs. By analyzing lung cancer cell lines and primary lung tumors using reverse transcription-PCR, we found that 100% (20 of 20) of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 43% (6 of 14) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines lacked DMBT1 expression. Furthermore, 45% (9 of 20) of the primary NSCLCs exhibited a markedly low level of gene expression compared with corresponding normal lung tissues, indicating that lack of gene expression also occurs in primary lung cancers. To determine the potential mechanisms for lack of DMBT1 expression in lung cancer, we analyzed tumor cell lines for potential intragenic homozygous deletions of the gene and found such homozygous deletions in 10% (4 of 40) of SCLC cell lines but in none of 14 NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, the loss of expression could not be rescued by treatment with a demethylation agent (5-azacytidine) in two NSCLC cell lines lacking DMBT1 expression, suggesting that de novo methylation of the promoter region of the gene is unlikely to play a role in inactivation of the gene. We then sequenced the whole coding region of DMBT1 in 8 NSCLC cell lines that expressed DMBT1 and 20 primary NSCLCs. A potential point mutation at codon 52 was detected in a NSCLC cell line and resulted in an amino acid change from serine to tryptophan. Three common polymorphisms were also detected in tissues analyzed. Our data demonstrate that DMBT1 expression is frequently lost in lung cancer due to gene deletion and to other not yet identified mechanisms, suggesting that inactivation of DMBT1 may play an important role in lung tumorigenesis. (+info)
Complement receptor 1 (CD35) on human reticulocytes: normal expression in systemic lupus erythematosus and HIV-infected patients.
The low levels of complement receptor 1 (CR1) on erythrocytes in autoimmune diseases and AIDS may be due to accelerated loss in the circulation, or to a diminished expression of CR1 on the red cell lineage. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of CR1 on reticulocytes (R) vs erythrocytes (E). Healthy subjects had a significant higher CR1 number per cell on R (919 +/- 99 CR1/cell) than on E (279 +/- 30 CR1/cell, n = 23), which corresponded to a 3. 5- +/- 1.3-fold loss of CR1. This intravascular loss was confirmed by FACS analysis, which showed that all R expressed CR1, whereas a large fraction of E was negative. The systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), HIV-infected, and cold hemolytic Ab disease (CHAD) patients had a CR1 number on R identical to the healthy subjects, contrasting with a lower CR1 on their E. The data indicated a significantly higher loss of CR1 in the three diseases, i.e., 7.0- +/- 3.8-, 6.1- +/- 2.9-, and 9.6- +/- 5.6-fold, respectively. The intravascular loss was best exemplified in a patient with factor I deficiency whose CR1 dropped from 520 CR1/R to 28 CR1/E, i.e., 18.6-fold loss. In one SLE patient and in the factor I-deficient patient, the FACS data were consistent with a loss of CR1 already on some R. In conclusion, CR1 is lost progressively from normal E during in vivo aging so that old E are almost devoid of CR1. The low CR1 of RBC in autoimmune diseases and HIV-infection is due to a loss occurring in the circulation by an active process that remains to be defined. (+info)
Hensin, the polarity reversal protein, is encoded by DMBT1, a gene frequently deleted in malignant gliomas.
The band 3 anion exchanger is located in the apical membrane of a beta-intercalated clonal cell line, whereas the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase is present in the basolateral membrane. When these cells were seeded at confluent density, they converted to an alpha-phenotype, localizing each of these proteins to the opposite cell membrane domain. The reversal of polarity is induced by hensin, a 230-kDa extracellular matrix protein. Rabbit kidney hensin is a multidomain protein composed of eight SRCR ("scavenger receptor, cysteine rich"), two CUB ("C1r/C1s Uegf Bmp1"), and one ZP ("zona pellucida") domain. Other proteins known to have these domains include CRP-ductin, a cDNA expressed at high levels in mouse intestine (8 SRCR, 5 CUB, 1 ZP), ebnerin, a protein cloned from a rat taste bud library (4 SRCR, 3 CUB, 1 ZP), and DMBT1, a sequence in human chromosome 10q25-26 frequently deleted in malignant gliomas (9 SRCR, 2 CUB, 1 ZP). Rabbit and mouse hensin genomic clones contained a new SRCR that was not found in hensin cDNA but was homologous to the first SRCR domain in DMBT1. Furthermore, the 3'-untranslated regions and the signal peptide of hensin were homologous to those of DMBT1. Mouse genomic hensin was localized to chromosome 7 band F4, which is syntenic to human 10q25-26. These data suggest that hensin and DMBT1 are alternatively spliced forms of the same gene. The analysis of mouse hensin bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomic clone by sequencing and Southern hybridization revealed that the gene also likely encodes CRP-ductin. A new antibody against the mouse SRCR1 domain recognized a protein in the mouse and rabbit brain but not in the immortalized cell line or kidney, whereas an antibody to SRCR6 and SRCR7 domains which are present in all the transcripts, recognized proteins in intestine, kidney, and brain from several species. The most likely interpretation of these data is that one gene produces at least three transcripts, namely, hensin, DMBT1, and CRP-ductin. Hensin may participate in determining the polarized phenotype of other epithelia and brain cells. (+info)
The extracellular matrix in the mouse brain: its reactions to endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase and certain other enzymes.
As our previous studies have indicated, the cingulate cortex of the adult mouse brain contains many neurons with rich cell surface glycoproteins which are linked by collagenous ligands to perineuronal proteoglycans. The present study demonstrated that exclusive incubation with endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase abolished the lectin Vicia villosa or Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (VVA or WFA) labeling of the nerve cell surface glycoproteins, while it neither interfered with the cationic iron colloid or aldehyde fuchsin stainings of the perineuronal proteoglycans nor abolished the Gomori's ammoniacal silver impregnation of the collagenous ligands. Double incubations with endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase and collagenase did not eliminate the lectin VVA or WFA labeling of the nerve cell surface glycoproteins, though they did eliminate the cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin stainings of the perineuronal proteoglycans as well as the Gomori's ammoniacal silver impregnation of the collagenous ligands. Triple incubations with endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, collagenase, and endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase abolished the lectin VVA or WFA labeling of the nerve cell surface glycoproteins, and also eliminated the cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin stainings of the perineuronal proteoglycans and the Gomori's ammoniacal silver impregnation of the collagenous ligands. These findings indicate that: the nerve cell surface glycoproteins or their terminal N-acetylgalactosamines are digested by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase; these galactosamines associated with the collagenous ligands or perineuronal proteoglycans are not digested by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase; and the terminal N-acetylgalactosamines newly exposed by collagenase incubation are digested by this galactosaminidase. It was further demonstrated that hyaluronidase incubation neither digests the collagenous ligands nor revives the lectin VVA or WFA labeling of the nerve cell surface proteoglycans. (+info)
Purification and characterization of a natural agglutinin from the serum of the hermit crab Diogenes affinis.
A natural agglutinin from the serum of the hermit crab Diogenes affinis was purified to homogeneity by a single-step affinity chromatography using N-acetylglucosamine-coupled Sepharose 6B. The purified serum agglutinin (PSA) showed a strong affinity for rat RBC, and its hemagglutinating (HA) activity was specifically dependent on Ca2+ and reversibly sensitive to EDTA. PSA in active form has a molecular mass estimate of 185 kDa and is composed of four non-identical subunits (51, 49, 42 and 39 kDa) cross-linked by interchain disulfide bonds. The homogeneity of PSA was corroborated by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic analyses using rabbit antiserum raised against the agglutinin. The antibodies in this antiserum appear to be specific for RBC-binding sites of the agglutinin molecules as revealed by the ability of the antiserum to neutralize HA activities of both whole serum and PSA of D. affinis. In HA-inhibition assays performed with several carbohydrates and glycoproteins, PSA showed a distinct and unique specificity for acetyl group in carbohydrates independently of the presence of this group on C-2 or C-5 and its stereochemical arrangement in the axial or equatorial orientation. Besides, this agglutinin appears to recognize the terminal N- and O- acetyl groups in the oligosaccharide chain of glycoconjugates. The HA activity of D. affinis agglutinin was also susceptible to inhibition by lipopolysaccharides from diverse gram-negative bacteria, which might indicate a significant in vivo role of this humoral agglutinin in the host immune response against bacterial infections. (+info)