The development and structure of the chimpanzee mandible. (1/77)

The sites of growth and remodeling, and the associated changes in cortical bone structure, have been studied in the chimpanzee mandible and compared with those previously reported in the human and macaque mandibles. The location of the principal sites of growth, and the distribution of the areas of deposition and resorption in the ramus, were found to be similar in all three species. In the chimpanzee, unlike Man, the bone being deposited at the condyle, posterior border of the ramus and coronoid process was plexiform in nature, indicating very rapid growth. The pattern of remodeling in the mandibular body, on the other hand, showed marked species differences at the chin and on the submandibular lingual surface, which account for the contrasts seen in the adult morphology of these regions. Although the pattern of distribution of cortical densities differed from that of surface remodeling, the information they give is complementary in analysing bone growth. The densest regions were found to coincide with sites of consistent lamellar deposition, while the least dense regions were those where plexiform bone was formed. Areas where remodeling led to the greatest reorientation of bone tissue within the cortex showed the greatest disparity between the two patterns.  (+info)

Delayed dental age in boys with constitutionally delayed puberty. (2/77)

It was the purpose of this study to evaluate dental age in boys with delayed puberty and to compare them with a group of normal, healthy boys. The study group consisted of eight boys with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP), older than 14 years, and with a testis volume smaller than 4 ml. The control group comprised 38 normal, healthy boys, aged between 12.4 and 14.3 years. Dental age was assessed using the Demirjian method and, on the basis of this evaluation, a dental delay score (i.e. dental age minus chronological age) was calculated in the CDGP and the control group. It was found that Demirjian's dental age assessment is a valid method for scoring dental age in Belgian boys between 12 and 14 years of age, and that CDGP boys showed a significant delay in dental development compared with normal boys (P = 0.0085). This study revealed a significant retardation in dental maturation of boys with CDGP.  (+info)

A comparison of the USDA ossification-based maturity system to a system based on dentition. (3/77)

Two studies using commercially fed cattle were conducted to determine the relationship of the USDA bone ossification-based maturity system to one based on the number of permanent incisors present at slaughter. These studies showed that 91.5 to 100% of cattle with zero permanent incisors (< 23.8 mo of age), 89.1 to 97.5% of cattle with two permanent incisors (23.8 to 30.4 mo of age), 75 to 82.2% of cattle with four permanent incisors (30.4 to 38.0 mo of age), 64 to 72.5% of cattle with six permanent incisors (38.0 to 45.3 mo of age), and 40% of cattle with eight permanent incisors (> 45.3 mo of age) were graded as A maturity by the USDA maturity classification system. Kappa tests revealed no statistical relationship between the dentition- and skeletal ossification-based maturity systems. Dentition-based maturity agreed with ossification/lean maturity for only 162 of 1,264 carcasses in Exp. 1 and only 54 of 200 carcasses in Exp. 2. Cattle with two, four, six, or eight permanent incisors were classified in more youthful categories of USDA bone ossification/lean maturity than they should have been. Male cattle were more likely to be misclassified into a younger age category by the USDA system than were female cattle. It seems that determining physiological maturity by number of permanent incisors rather than by the current USDA method of subjectively evaluating skeletal and lean maturity may prove to be a more accurate technique of sorting beef carcasses into less-variable age groups.  (+info)

Daily incremental lines in sika deer (Cervus nippon) dentine. (4/77)

This work was designed to observe the dentine incremental lines of the sika deer (Cervus nippon) fawns and to investigate their periodicity using the chronological labeling method with fluorochromes. The incremental lines were observed in decalcified specimens stained by Bodian's silver technique, and the fluorescence-labeled lines were observed in undecalcified and ground specimens. In the silver stained specimens, there were two types of lines, deeply stained thick lines and faintly stained minute regular incremental lines. The intervals and staining intensities of the deeply stained thick lines were very similar to those of the fluorescence-labeled lines in the ground specimens obtained from the same tooth, and hence, it appeared that the both lines were identical. The number of minute incremental lines between the deeply stained thick lines was the same as that of days between the time when each fluorescent labeling injection was made. Therefore, it seemed that each minute incremental line was formed each day. The possibility of age estimation in days using diurnal dentine increments was discussed.  (+info)

Cleft type and Angle's classification of malocclusion in Korean cleft patients. (5/77)

This study was performed to investigate the contributing factors, such as cleft type, side of cleft, patient's age, and gender, associated with Angle's classification of malocclusion in Korean cleft patients. The records of 250 cleft patients (175 males, 75 females) who attended the Department of Orthodontics, Seoul National University Dental Hospital between 1988 and 1999 were examined. The percentages of subjects with cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and alveolus (CLA), cleft palate (CP), and cleft lip and palate (CLP) were 7.6, 19.2, 9.6, and 63.6, respectively. The overall distributions of unilateral and bilateral clefts were 76 and 24 per cent, respectively. The overall percentages of Class I, II, and III malocclusions were 18.5, 8.8, and 72.7. The frequency of Class III malocclusions was most prevalent in all age groups. Bivariate analysis showed that whilst gender was not significant, the type of cleft significantly influenced the development of a Class III malocclusion (P < 0.01). Using logistic regression analysis, subjects in the CP (P < 0.05) and CLP groups (P < 0.01) were 3.9 and 5.5 times more likely to have a Class III malocclusion than those in the CL group. There was, however, no statistical difference in the prevalence of a Class III malocclusion between the CL and the CLA groups (P > 0.05). When the degree of cleft involvement in the palate increased, so did the predominance of a Class III malocclusion.  (+info)

Forensic odontology: the roles and responsibilities of the dentist. (6/77)

Dentistry has much to offer law enforcement in the detection and solution of crime or in civil proceedings. Forensic dental fieldwork requires an interdisciplinary knowledge of dental science. Most often the role of the forensic odontologist is to establish a person's identity. Teeth, with their physiologic variations, pathoses and effects of therapy, record information that remains throughout life and beyond. The teeth may also be used as weapons and, under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Forensic odontology has an important role in the recognition of abuse among persons of all ages. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identify unknown humans.  (+info)

An Early Pleistocene hominin mandible from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain. (7/77)

We present a mandible recovered in 2003 from the Aurora Stratum of the TD6 level of the Gran Dolina site (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain). The specimen, catalogued as ATD6-96, adds to the hominin sample recovered from this site in 1994-1996, and assigned to Homo antecessor. ATD6-96 is the left half of a gracile mandible belonging to a probably female adult individual with premolars and molars in place. This mandible shows a primitive structural pattern shared with all African and Asian Homo species. However, it is small and exhibits a remarkable gracility, a trait shared only with the Early and Middle Pleistocene Chinese hominins. Furthermore, none of the mandibular features considered apomorphic in the European Middle and Early Upper Pleistocene hominin lineage are present in ATD6-96. This evidence reinforces the taxonomic identity of H. antecessor and is consistent with the hypothesis of a close relationship between this species and Homo sapiens.  (+info)

Dental age in Dutch children. (8/77)

Dental age was studied in a sample of 451 Dutch children (226 boys and 225 girls) according to the method of Demirjian. They were born between 1972 and 1993 and were between 3 and 17 years of age at the time a dental pantomogram (DPT) was obtained. All children were placed in the age group closest to their chronological age. All 451 DPTs were scored by one examiner. A subset of 52 DPTs was scored by a second examiner and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa were calculated. The ICC was 0.99 and Cohen's kappa 0.68. Boys and girls were analysed separately.A significant difference was found between chronological age and dental age. On average, the Dutch boys were 0.4 years and the girls 0.6 years ahead of the French-Canadian children analysed by Demirjian. Therefore, the French-Canadian standards were not considered suitable for Dutch children. New graphs for the Dutch population were constructed using a logistic curve with the equation Y = 100*{1/(1 + e(-alpha(x - x0)))} as a basis. The 90 per cent confidence interval was calculated. To determine whether the logistic curve was correct, a residual analysis was carried out and scatter plots of the differences were made. The explained variance was 93.9 per cent for the boys and 94.8 per cent for the girls. Both the residual analysis and the scatter plots indicated that the logistic curve was appropriate for use with Dutch children. In addition to the graphs, tables were produced which transfer the maturity scores calculated by the method of Demirjian into Dutch dental age.  (+info)