Modulation of monocytic cell activity and virus susceptibility during differentiation into macrophages.
A major component of innate immune responses relies on monocytes and macrophages, virus infection of which will pose a particular problem for immunological defense. Consequently, the monocytic cell differentiation pathway was analyzed in terms of cellular modulations therein and their relation to monocytotropic virus infection. Differentiation was characterized by down-regulation of CD14, MHC Ags, the monocytic SWC1 marker, and p53; concomitant up-regulation of the SWC9 macrophage marker, a putative porcine CD80 (detected with anti-human CD80 Ab), and acid phosphatase secretion were also characteristic. Elevated phagocytic and endocytic activities as well as endosomal/lysosomal acidification were identified as being important to the macrophage. In contrast, monocytes possessed high accessory activity. This was multifactorial, concomitantly requiring 1) high MHC Ag expression; 2) enzyme activity of esterase, peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, and 5' nucleotidase in preference to glucosidase, galactosidase, and glucuronidase; and 3) elevated capacity for spontaneous IL-1 production. Only with all parameters was efficient stimulation of Ag-specific lymphocytes possible. These results point to a continuous process during differentiation, involving inter-related characteristics linking the more accessory monocyte to the scavenger macrophage, both in vitro and in vivo. Of particular interest was how these characteristics related to monocytotropic virus infection, and how a particular virus could show a clear preference for the differentiating macrophages. Such results not only further our understanding of porcine immunology, but also provide evidence and a potential model for the determination and characterization of monocytotropic virus-host cell interactions. (+info)
African swine fever virus: a B cell-mitogenic virus in vivo and in vitro.
The two major characteristics of pathogenesis in African swine fever virus (ASFV) infections of domestic pigs are massive B-cell apoptosis and haemorrhage. The effects of ASFV on porcine B cells have therefore been systematically examined in vivo, by using virus-infected pigs and SCID-Beige mice reconstituted with porcine bone marrow, and in vitro, by using porcine B-cell lines and B cells from normal and ASFV-infected pigs. Secretion of porcine Ig was stimulated by ASFV both in vivo and in bone marrow cultures in vitro, with the virulent Malawi isolate of ASFV being the most effective. Stimulation of Ig secretion in vitro depended on the presence of ASFV-infected macrophages and did not occur with supernatants from ASFV-infected macrophages. Although the virus alone did not stimulate proliferation of purified B cells in vitro, it was co-stimulatory with CD154 (CD40 ligand). The B cells recovered from ASFV-infected porcine lymphoid tissue were of activated surface marker phenotypes and, interestingly, expressed diminished levels of the B-cell co-stimulatory surface molecule CD21. In addition, they were highly sensitive to IL-4 and CD154. These results may be integrated into a model of pathogenesis in which those B cells activated indirectly as a result of virulent ASFV infection of macrophages are not rescued from apoptosis through interaction with CD154, due to the drastic depletion of T cells that occurs early in infection. The consequently diminished specific anti-ASFV antibody response would favour survival of the virus, with the non-specific hypergammaglobulinaemia being perhaps another example of pathogen-mediated immune deviation. (+info)
African swine fever virus replication in the midgut epithelium is required for infection of Ornithodoros ticks.
Although the Malawi Lil20/1 (MAL) strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV) was isolated from Ornithodoros sp. ticks, our attempts to experimentally infect ticks by feeding them this strain failed. Ten different collections of Ornithodorus porcinus porcinus ticks and one collection of O. porcinus domesticus ticks were orally exposed to a high titer of MAL. At 3 weeks postinoculation (p.i.), <25% of the ticks contained detectable virus, with viral titers of <4 log(10) 50% hemadsorbing doses/ml. Viral titers declined to undetectability in >90% of the ticks by 5 weeks p.i. To further study the growth defect, O. porcinus porcinus ticks were orally exposed to MAL and assayed at regular intervals p.i. Whole-tick viral titers dramatically declined (>1,000-fold) between 2 and 6 days p.i., and by 18 days p.i., viral titers were below the detection limit. In contrast, viral titers of ticks orally exposed to a tick-competent ASFV isolate, Pretoriuskop/96/4/1 (Pr4), increased 10-fold by 10 days p.i. and 50-fold by 14 days p.i. Early viral gene expression, but not extensive late gene expression or viral DNA synthesis, was detected in the midguts of ticks orally exposed to MAL. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that progeny virus was rarely present in ticks orally exposed to MAL and, when present, was associated with extensive cytopathology of phagocytic midgut epithelial cells. To determine if viral replication was restricted only in the midgut epithelium, parenteral inoculations into the hemocoel were performed. With inoculation by this route, a persistent infection was established although a delay in generalization of MAL was detected and viral titers in most tissues were typically 10- to 1,000-fold lower than those of ticks injected with Pr4. MAL was detected in both the salivary secretion and coxal fluid following feeding but less frequently and at a lower titer compared to Pr4. Transovarial transmission of MAL was not detected after two gonotrophic cycles. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that, when injected, MAL replicated in a number of cell types but failed to replicate in midgut epithelial cells. In contrast, ticks injected with Pr4 had replicating virus in midgut epithelial cells. Together, these results indicate that MAL replication is restricted in midgut epithelial cells. This finding demonstrates the importance of viral replication in the midgut for successful ASFV infection of the arthropod host. (+info)
African swine fever virus dUTPase is a highly specific enzyme required for efficient replication in swine macrophages.
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) gene E165R, which is homologous to dUTPases, has been characterized. A multiple alignment of dUTPases showed the conservation in ASFV dUTPase of the motifs that define this protein family. A biochemical analysis of the purified recombinant enzyme showed that the virus dUTPase is a trimeric, highly specific enzyme that requires a divalent cation for activity. The enzyme is most probably complexed with Mg(2+), the preferred cation, and has an apparent K(m) for dUTP of 1 microM. Northern and Western blotting, as well as immunofluorescence analyses, indicated that the enzyme is expressed at early and late times of infection and is localized in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. On the other hand, an ASFV dUTPase-deletion mutant (vDeltaE165R) has been obtained. Growth kinetics showed that vDeltaE165R replicates as efficiently as parental virus in Vero cells but only to 10% or less of parental virus in swine macrophages. Our results suggest that the dUTPase activity is dispensable for virus replication in dividing cells but is required for productive infection in nondividing swine macrophages, the natural host cell for the virus. The viral dUTPase may play a role in lowering the dUTP concentration in natural infections to minimize misincorporation of deoxyuridine into the viral DNA and ensure the fidelity of genome replication. (+info)
Intermediate stages in monocyte-macrophage differentiation modulate phenotype and susceptibility to virus infection.
The kinetics of monocyte-macrophage differentiation was analysed using two Swine Workshop Cluster (SWC) CD molecules: SWC1 and SWC9. Myeloid cells were selected by labelling for the common myeloid antigen, SWC3. Confirmation of macrophage identification used acid phosphatase and phagocytosis activities. During differentiation, SWC1 was gradually lost. SWC9 was absent on monocytes but up-regulated early. Consequently, monocytes were SWC1+ SWC9- and macrophages were SWC1- SWC9+. An additional, intermediate, cell population was identified as SWC1+ SWC9+. Size and granularity characteristics mirrored the monocyte, macrophage and intermediate-cell phenotypes. Overall, SWC9 up-regulation was central in macrophage differentiation and dependent on plasma factors. The concomitant loss of SWC1 was independent of these factors, but always associated with mature macrophages. Upon up-regulation of SWC9, the SWC1+ SWC9+ intermediate monocytic cells became susceptible to African swine fever virus infection. These results demonstrate the heterogeneity of monocytic cell differentiation and the importance of these characteristics for interaction with monocytotropic viruses. (+info)
An African swine fever virus ORF with similarity to C-type lectins is non-essential for growth in swine macrophages in vitro and for virus virulence in domestic swine.
An African swine fever virus (ASFV) ORF, 8CR, with similarity to the C-type lectin family of adhesion proteins has been described in the pathogenic isolate Malawi Lil-20/1. The similarity of 8CR to cellular and poxvirus genes associated with cell adhesion, cell recognition and virus infectivity suggested that 8CR may be of significance to ASFV-host cell interactions. Sequence analysis of the 8CR ORF from additional pathogenic ASFV isolates demonstrated conservation among isolates from both pig and tick sources. Northern blot analysis demonstrated 8CR mRNA transcription late in the virus replication cycle. A Malawi Lil-20/1 8CR deletion mutant (delta8CR) was constructed to analyse 8CR function further. The growth characteristics in vitro of delta8CR in porcine macrophage cell cultures were identical to those observed for parental virus. In domestic swine, delta8CR exhibited an unaltered parental Malawi Lil-20/1 disease and virulence phenotype. Thus, although well conserved among pathogenic ASFV field isolates, 8CR is non-essential for growth in porcine macrophages in vitro and for virus virulence in domestic swine. (+info)
An African swine fever virus ERV1-ALR homologue, 9GL, affects virion maturation and viral growth in macrophages and viral virulence in swine.
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome contains a gene, 9GL, with similarity to yeast ERV1 and ALR genes. ERV1 has been shown to function in oxidative phosphorylation and in cell growth, while ALR has hepatotrophic activity. 9GL encodes a protein of 119 amino acids and was highly conserved at both nucleotide and amino acid levels among all ASFV field isolates examined. Monospecific rabbit polyclonal antibody produced to a glutathione S-transferase-9GL fusion protein specifically immunoprecipitated a 14-kDa protein from macrophage cell cultures infected with the ASFV isolate Malawi Lil-20/1 (MAL). Time course analysis and viral DNA synthesis inhibitor experiments indicated that p14 was a late viral protein. A 9GL gene deletion mutant of MAL (Delta9GL), exhibited a growth defect in macrophages of approximately 2 log(10) units and had a small-plaque phenotype compared to either a revertant (9GL-R) or the parental virus. 9GL affected normal virion maturation; virions containing acentric nucleoid structures comprised 90 to 99% of all virions observed in Delta9GL-infected macrophages. The Delta9GL virus was markedly attenuated in swine. In contrast to 9GL-R infection, where mortality was 100%, all Delta9GL-infected animals survived infection. With the exception of a transient fever response in some animals, Delta9GL-infected animals remained clinically normal and exhibited significant 100- to 10,000-fold reductions in viremia titers. All pigs previously infected with Delta9GL survived infection when subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of virulent parental MAL. Thus, ASFV 9GL gene deletion mutants may prove useful as live-attenuated ASF vaccines. (+info)
Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses.
The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined. (+info)