Mycotoxin determinations on animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada.
Results of examination of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins and ochratoxins were most frequently requested, usually on the basis of visible mouldiness. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 100 specimens at a level of 50 ppb in a sample of alfalfa brome hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in seven of 95 specimens comprising six samples of wheat at levels between 30 and 6000 ppb and one sample of hay at a level of 30 ppb. An overall detection rate of 4.2% involving significant levels of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occur in farm livestock or poultry more frequently than presently diagnosied. (+info)
Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat.
Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats. (+info)
Effect of zinc on adenine nucleotide pools in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus.
The adenylic acid systems of Aspergillus parasiticus were studied in zinc-replete and zinc-deficient media. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels of the fungus were high during exponential phase and low during stationary phase in zinc-replete cultures. On the other hand, the levels of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were low during exponential phase of growth and high during stationary phase. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels during exponential phase may indicate higher primary metabolic activity of the fungus. On the other hand, high adenosine 5'-monophosphate levels during stationary phase may inhibit lipid formation and may enhance aflatoxin levels. The inorganic phosphorus content was low in a zinc-replete medium throughout the growth period, thereby favoring aflatoxin biosynthesis. The energy charge during the exponential phase was high but low during the stationary phase. In general the energy charge values were lower because of high adenosine 5'-monophosphate content. (+info)
Characterization of the promoter for the gene encoding the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway regulatory protein AFLR.
Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus parasiticus are regulated by the binuclear zinc cluster DNA-binding protein AFLR. The aflR promoter was analyzed in beta-glucuronidase reporter assays to elucidate some of the elements involved in the gene's transcription control. Truncation at 118 bp upstream of the translational start site increased promoter activity 5-fold, while truncation at -100 reduced activity about 20-fold. These findings indicate the presence of an important positive regulatory element between -100 and -118 and a negative regulatory region further upstream. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays on nuclear extracts from A. parasiticus induced for aflatoxin expression suggest that AFLR and another, possibly more abundant, protein bind to the -100/-118 region. Another protein binds to a sequence at position -159 to -164 that matches the consensus binding site for the transcription factor involved in pH-dependent gene regulation, PACC. (+info)
HGF-mediated apoptosis via p53/bax-independent pathway activating JNK1.
Current studies have indicated both positive and negative roles for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met receptor signaling system in tumor development. Recently, we have shown that HGF has the capacity to induce both growth inhibition and programmed cell death in aflatoxin-transformed (AFLB8) rat liver epithelial cells. Using the same cell line, we have now investigated a potential mechanism for HGF-induced apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis of bcl-2 gene family member (bax, bcl-2, bclX-s/l) expression showed no correlation with HGF treatment, suggesting that HGF-mediated apoptosis is bax independent. Following HGF treatment retinoblastoma protein (pRB) was present in the hypophosphorylated state. HGF treatment increased cyclin A, cyclin G1 and nuclear transcriptional factor (NFkappaB) protein expression. However, electrophoretic mobility shift analysis showed that NFkappaB activity decreased with HGF treatment. Under these apoptotic conditions, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK2) were activated with lower level activation of ERK2, while no involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase was observed. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was not protective, and actually induced cells to undergo apoptosis to a level similar to that of HGF alone or EGF/HGF in combination. These results suggest the possibility of cross-talk between HGF/c-met and EGF/EGFR signaling pathways, and the involvement of JNK1 induction in HGF-mediated apoptotic cell death. (+info)
Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi.
West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management. (+info)
Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus.
The nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus has a defective norsolorinic acid reductase, and thus the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway is blocked, resulting in the accumulation of norsolorinic acid, a bright red-orange pigment. We developed a visual agar plate assay to monitor yeast strains for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production by visually scoring the accumulation of this pigment of the nor mutant. We identified yeast strains that reduced the red-orange pigment accumulation in the nor mutant. These yeasts also reduced aflatoxin accumulation by a toxigenic strain of A. flavus. These yeasts may be useful for reducing aflatoxin contamination of food commodities. (+info)
Enzymatic formation of G-group aflatoxins and biosynthetic relationship between G- and B-group aflatoxins.
We detected biosynthetic activity for aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) in cell extracts of Aspergillus parasiticus NIAH-26. We found that in the presence of NADPH, aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) were produced from O-methylsterigmatocystin and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin, respectively. No G-group aflatoxins were produced from aflatoxin B(1), aflatoxin B(2), 5-methoxysterigmatocystin, dimethoxysterigmatocystin, or sterigmatin, confirming that B-group aflatoxins are not the precursors of G-group aflatoxins and that G- and B-group aflatoxins are independently produced from the same substrates (O-methylsterigmatocystin and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin). In competition experiments in which the cell-free system was used, formation of aflatoxin G(2) from dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin was suppressed when O-methylsterigmatocystin was added to the reaction mixture, whereas aflatoxin G(1) was newly formed. This result indicates that the same enzymes can catalyze the formation of aflatoxins G(1) and G(2). Inhibition of G-group aflatoxin formation by methyrapone, SKF-525A, or imidazole indicated that a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase may be involved in the formation of G-group aflatoxins. Both the microsome fraction and a cytosol protein with a native mass of 220 kDa were necessary for the formation of G-group aflatoxins. Due to instability of the microsome fraction, G-group aflatoxin formation was less stable than B-group aflatoxin formation. The ordA gene product, which may catalyze the formation of B-group aflatoxins, also may be required for G-group aflatoxin biosynthesis. We concluded that at least three reactions, catalyzed by the ordA gene product, an unstable microsome enzyme, and a 220-kDa cytosol protein, are involved in the enzymatic formation of G-group aflatoxins from either O-methylsterigmatocystin or dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin. (+info)