Afipia felis induces uptake by macrophages directly into a nonendocytic compartment.
Afipia felis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes some cases of human Cat Scratch Disease. A. felis can survive and multiply in several mammalian cell types, including macrophages, but the precise intracellular compartmentalization of A. felis-containing phagosomes is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that, in murine macrophages, most A. felis-containing phagosomes exclude lysosomal tracer loaded into macrophage lysosomes before, as well as endocytic tracer loaded after, establishment of an infection. Established Afipia-containing phagosomes possess neither early endosomal marker proteins [early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), Rab5, transferrin receptor, trytophane aspartate containing coat protein (TACO)] nor late endosomal or lysosomal proteins [cathepsin D, beta-glucuronidase, vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase, rab7, mannose-6-phosphate receptor, vesicle-associated membrane protein 8, lysosome-associated membrane proteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2]. Those bacteria that will be found in a nonendosomal compartment enter the macrophage via an EEA1-negative compartment, which remains negative for LAMP-1. The smaller subpopulation of afipiae whose phagosomes will be part of the endocytic system enters into an EEA1-positive compartment, which also subsequently acquires LAMP-1. Killing of Afipia or opsonization with immune antibodies leads to a strong increase in the percentage of A. felis-containing phagosomes that interact with the endocytic system. We conclude that most phagosomes containing A. felis are disconnected from the endosome-lysosome continuum, that their unusual compartmentalization is decided at uptake, and that this compartmentalization requires bacterial viability. (+info)
tfdA-like genes in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium-Agromonas-Nitrobacter-Afipia cluster in alpha-Proteobacteria.
The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D)/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase gene (tfdA) homolog designated tfdAalpha was cloned and characterized from 2,4-D-degrading bacterial strain RD5-C2. This Japanese upland soil isolate belongs to the Bradyrhizobium-Agromonas-Nitrobacter-Afipia cluster in the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria on the basis of its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. Sequence analysis showed 56 to 60% identity of tfdAalpha to representative tfdA genes. A MalE-TfdAalpha fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited about 10 times greater activity for phenoxyacetate than 2,4-D in an alpha-ketoglutarate- and Fe(II)-dependent reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence of TfdAalpha revealed a conserved His-X-Asp-X(146)-His-X(14)-Arg motif characteristic of the active site of group II alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. The tfdAalpha genes were also detected in 2,4-D-degrading alpha-Proteobacteria previously isolated from pristine environments in Hawaii and in Saskatchewan, Canada (Y. Kamagata, R. R. Fulthorpe, K. Tamura, H. Takami, L. J. Forney, and J. M. Tiedje, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2266-2272, 1997). These findings indicate that the tfdA genes in beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and the tfdAalpha genes in alpha-Proteobacteria arose by divergent evolution from a common ancestor. (+info)
Description of Afipia birgiae sp. nov. and Afipia massiliensis sp. nov. and recognition of Afipia felis genospecies A.
On the basis of phenotypic characterization and DNA relatedness, two novel species are proposed, Afipia birgiae sp. nov. (type strain 34632T = CIP 106344T = CCUG 43108T) and Afipia massiliensis sp. nov. (type strain 34633T = CIP 107022T = CCUG 45153T). A new genospecies is described, named Afipia felis genospecies A, closely related to Afipia felis. The complexity encountered in the taxonomy of the Bradyrhizobiaceae group within the alpha-2 subgroup of the Proteobacteria is discussed and the description of these novel species highlights the need for new tools for phylogenetic analysis in the group. The novel species herein described are fastidious bacteria isolated from a hospital water supply in co-culture with amoebae. It is hypothesized that this group of bacteria are a potential cause of nosocomial infections. (+info)
Usefulness of rpoB gene sequencing for identification of Afipia and Bosea species, including a strategy for choosing discriminative partial sequences.
Bacteria belonging to the genera Afipia and Bosea are amoeba-resisting bacteria that have been recently reported to colonize hospital water supplies and are suspected of being responsible for intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia. Identification of these bacteria is now based on determination of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. However, the 16S rRNA gene is not polymorphic enough to ensure discrimination of species defined by DNA-DNA relatedness. The complete rpoB sequences of 20 strains were first determined by both PCR and genome walking methods. The percentage of homology between different species ranged from 83 to 97% and was in all cases lower than that observed with the 16S rRNA gene; this was true even for species that differed in only one position. The taxonomy of Bosea and Afipia is discussed in light of these results. For strain identification that does not require the complete rpoB sequence (4,113 to 4,137 bp), we propose a simple computerized method that allows determination of nucleotide positions of high variability in the sequence that are bordered by conserved sequences and that could be useful for design of universal primers. A fragment of 740 to 752 bp that contained the most highly variable area (positions 408 to 420) was amplified and sequenced with these universal primers for 47 strains. The variability of this sequence allowed identification of all strains and correlated well with results of DNA-DNA relatedness. In the future, this method could be also used for the determination of variability "hot spots" in sets of housekeeping genes, not only for identification purposes but also for increasing the discriminatory power of sequence typing techniques such as multilocus sequence typing. (+info)
Rare bacterium of new genus isolated with prolonged enrichment culture.
Dynamic change in microbial flora was monitored with an oxygen electrode. The 1st phase microorganisms, which first grew well in LB medium, were followed by the 2nd phase microorganisms, which supposedly assimilated microbial cells of the 1st phase and their metabolites. In a similar way, a change in microbial flora was observed from the 1st phase to the 4th phase in 84 hr. Based on this observation, prolonged enrichment culture was done for as long as two months to increase the ratio of existence of rare microorganisms. From these culture liquids, four slow-growing bacteria (provisionally named Shinshu-ah1, -ah2, -ah3, and -ah4), which formed scarcely visible small colonies, were isolated. Sequence analysis of their 16S rDNA showed that Shinshu-ah1 had 97% homology with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and uncultured alpha proteobacterium clone blaii 16, Shinshu-ah2 91% with Rasbo bacterium, Alpha proteobacterium 34619, Bradyrhizobium genosp. P, Afipia felis and an unidentified bacterium, Shinshu-ah3 99% with Methylobacterium mesophilicum, and Shinshu-ah4 95% with Agromyces ramosus DSM 43045. Phylogenetic study indicated that Shinshu-ah2 had a possibility to form a new family, Shinshu-ah1 a new genus, and Shinshu-ah4 a new species. (+info)
Genome sequence of Afipia birgiae, a rare bacterium associated with Amoebae.