(1/123) Subgenual cingulate cortex volume in first-episode psychosis.
OBJECTIVE: Gray matter volume and glucose utilization have been reported to be reduced in the left subgenual cingulate of subjects with familial bipolar or unipolar depression. It is unclear whether these findings are secondary to recurrent illness or are part of a familial/genetic syndrome. The authors' goal was to clarify these findings. METHOD: Volumetric analyses were performed by using magnetic resonance imaging in 41 patients experiencing their first episode of affective disorder or schizophrenia and in 20 normal comparison subjects. RESULTS: The left subgenual cingulate volume of the patients with affective disorder who had a family history of affective disorder was smaller than that of patients with affective disorder with no family history of the illness and the normal comparison subjects. Patients with schizophrenia did not differ from comparison subjects in left subgenual cingulate volume. CONCLUSIONS: Left subgenual cingulate abnormalities are present at first hospitalization for psychotic affective disorder in patients who have a family history of affective disorder. (+info)
(2/123) The man who claimed to be a paedophile.
A psychiatrist recounts a case of a man presenting with severe depression who claimed to have abused children and his pet dog. Clinical management of the case hinged on whether this claim was true, a lie or delusional. The uncertainty over this raised complex ethical dilemmas regarding confidentiality and protection of the public (and animals). (+info)
(3/123) Impact of genetic vulnerability and hypoxia on overall intelligence by age 7 in offspring at high risk for schizophrenia compared with affective psychoses.
Risk factors for schizophrenia, such as genetic vulnerability and obstetric complications, have been associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. We tested the association of these risk factors with general intellectual ability in offspring at high risk for psychoses and normal control subjects. Offspring of 182 parents with DSM-IV schizophrenia or affective psychoses were recruited and diagnosed from the Boston and Providence cohorts of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP). Control subjects from the NCPP were selected to be comparable with affected parents based on the parent's age, ethnicity, study site, number of offspring enrolled in the NCPP, and payment status, and on the offspring's age, sex, and history of obstetric complications. Based on data prospectively acquired from pregnancy and events of gestation, labor, delivery, and the neonatal period, we derived a measure of probable hypoxic-ischemic insult. We also report on standardized measures of general intelligence (intelligence quotient [IQ]) collected at age 7. General linear mixed models were used to test for the simultaneous effects of genetic vulnerability, defined as parental diagnosis, and probable hypoxic insult on age 7 IQ. Specificity of the effects for schizophrenia compared with affective psychoses and sex effects were also tested. Low IQ at age 7 was significantly associated with genetic vulnerability to psychoses, in particular with schizophrenia. (+info)
(4/123) Sixteen-year mortality in patients with affective disorder commenced on lithium.
BACKGROUND: Lithium treatment is claimed to reduce mortality in patients with affective disorder, but the evidence is conflicting. AIM: To estimate mortality rates from a cohort of patients with affective disorder commenced on lithium with an observation period of two years and a follow-up after 16 years. METHOD: The mortality rates of patients were compared with those of the general Danish population, standardised for age, gender and calendar time with respect to death from all causes, suicide and death from cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Forty of the study's 133 patients died during the 16-year observation period (11 from suicide). Mortality among patients commenced on lithium was twice that of the general population. The statistically significantly elevated mortality was due largely to an excess of suicides; mortality from all other causes was similar to the background populations. Thirty-two patients died after the first two years of observation and were included in the analysis of the association between death and treatment compliance. Suicide occurred more frequently among those patients not complying with treatment. CONCLUSION: Mortality, especially suicide, was significantly increased in unselected patients with affective disorder commenced on lithium relative to the general population. (+info)
(5/123) Obstetric complications and affective psychoses. Two case-control studies based on structured obstetric records.
BACKGROUND: Unlike schizophrenia, little interest has been taken in the incidence of obstetric complications in affective psychoses. AIMS: To find out whether obstetric complications are more common in affective psychoses than matched controls. METHOD: Two hundred and seventeen probands with an in-patient diagnosis of affective psychosis who had been born in Scotland in 1971-74, and a further 84 born in 1975-78, were closely matched with controls and the incidence of obstetric complications in the two compared using obstetric data recorded in a set format shortly after birth. RESULTS: Abnormal presentation of the foetus was the only complication significantly more common in the affective probands in the 1971-74 birth cohort and artificial rupture of the membranes was the only event more common in the probands in the 1975-78 cohort. Both are probably chance findings. CONCLUSION: It is unlikely that the incidence of obstetric complications is raised in people with affective psychoses of early onset. (+info)
(6/123) Ten-year outcome: patients with schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders and mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms.
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether outcome in schizoaffective disorders is more similar to schizophrenia or affective disorders. AIMS: To provide longitudinal data on clinical course and outcome in schizoaffective disorders versus schizophrenia and affective disorders, and determine whether mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms have negative prognostic implications. METHOD: A total of 210 patients with schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar manic disorders and depression were assessed at hospitalisation and then followed up four times over 10 years. RESULTS: At all four follow-ups, fewer patients with schizoaffective disorders than with schizophrenia showed uniformly poor outcome. Patients with mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms during index hospitalisation showed significantly poorer subsequent outcome (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Schizoaffective outcome was better than schizophrenic outcome and poorer than outcome for psychotic affective disorders. Mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms have negative prognostic implications. The results could fit a symptom dimension view of schizoaffective course. (+info)
(7/123) Association of depression and gender with mortality in old age. Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL).
BACKGROUND: The association between depression and increased mortality risk in older persons may depend on the severity of the depressive disorder and gender. AIMS: To investigate the association between major and mild depressive syndromes and excess mortality in community-living elderly men and women. METHOD: Depression (Geriatric Mental State AGECAT) was assessed in 4051 older persons, with a 6-year follow-up of community death registers. The mortality risk of neurotic and psychotic depression was calculated after adjustment for demographic variables, physical illness, cognitive decline and functional disabilities. RESULTS: A total of 75% of men and 41% of women with psychotic depression had diet at follow-up. Psychotic depression was associated with significant excess mortality in both men and women. Neurotic depression was associated with a 1.67-fold higher mortality risk in men only. CONCLUSIONS: In the elderly, major depressive syndromes increase the risk of death in both men and women, but mild depression increases the risk of death only in men. (+info)
(8/123) Prefrontal gray matter volume reduction in first episode schizophrenia.
Functional measures have consistently shown prefrontal abnormalities in schizophrenia. However, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of prefrontal volume reduction have been less consistent. In this study, we evaluated prefrontal gray matter volume in first episode (first hospitalized) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, compared with first episode patients diagnosed with affective psychosis and normal comparison subjects, to determine the presence in and specificity of prefrontal abnormalities to schizophrenia. Prefrontal gray and white matter volumes were measured from first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 17), and from gender and parental socio-economic status-matched subjects with affective (mainly manic) psychosis (n = 17) and normal comparison subjects (n = 17), age-matched within a narrow age range (18--29 years). Total (left and right) prefrontal gray matter volume was significantly reduced in first episode schizophrenia compared with first episode affective psychosis and comparison subjects. Follow-up analyses indicated significant left prefrontal gray matter volume reduction and trend level reduction on the right. Schizophrenia patients showed 9.2% reduction on the left and 7.7% reduction on the right compared with comparison subjects. White matter volumes did not differ among groups. These data suggest that prefrontal cortical gray matter volume reduction is selectively present at first hospitalization in schizophrenia but not affective psychosis. (+info)