Role of reactive oxygen species in the renal fibrosis.
Renal fibrosis is a common pathway of progressive renal diseases leading to end-stage renal disease regardless of the etiology. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress, resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of fibrotic diseases. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is the predominant enzyme source for ROS generation and is now recognized as a key mediator of cell proliferation and matrix accumulation in renal disease. Multiple stimuli and agonists, such as transforming growth factor beta1, tumor necrosis factor, platelet derived growth factor, angiotensin II, hyperglycemia, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and albumin have been shown to alter the activity or expression of the NADPH oxidase and ultimately increase ROS production. ROS directly incites damage to biologically important macromolecules and leads to generation of the so-called advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and advanced glycation end products, which are not only markers of oxidative stress but also cause renal injury. Targeting NADPH oxidase and/or reducing AOPPs production might be a novel strategy for the therapeutic intervention of variety of fibrotic kidney disorders. (+info)
Sorafenib-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell death depends on reactive oxygen species production in vitro and in vivo.