Identification of a new Pyk2 target protein with Arf-GAP activity.
Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 is activated by a variety of G-protein-coupled receptors and by extracellular signals that elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We have identified a new Pyk2 binding protein designated Pap. Pap is a multidomain protein composed of an N-terminal alpha-helical region with a coiled-coil motif, followed by a pleckstrin homology domain, an Arf-GAP domain, an ankyrin homology region, a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal SH3 domain. We demonstrate that Pap forms a stable complex with Pyk2 and that activation of Pyk2 leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Pap in living cells. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that Pap is localized in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane, where it is colocalized with Pyk2. In addition, in vitro recombinant Pap exhibits strong GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity towards the small GTPases Arf1 and Arf5 and weak activity towards Arf6. Addition of recombinant Pap protein to Golgi preparations prevented Arf-dependent generation of post-Golgi vesicles in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of Pap in cultured cells reduced the constitutive secretion of a marker protein. We propose that Pap functions as a GAP for Arf and that Pyk2 may be involved in regulation of vesicular transport through its interaction with Pap. (+info)
ARF6 requirement for Rac ruffling suggests a role for membrane trafficking in cortical actin rearrangements.
The ARF6 GTPase regulates a novel endosomal-plasma membrane recycling pathway and influences cortical actin remodeling. Here we examined the relationship between ARF6 and Rac1, a Rho family GTPase, implicated in cortical actin rearrangements. Endogenous Rac1 colocalized with ARF6 at the plasma membrane and on the ARF6 recycling endosome in untransfected HeLa and primary human fibroblast cells. In transfected HeLa cells Rac1 and ARF6 also colocalized. Cells expressing wild-type ARF6 or Rac1 formed actin-containing surface protrusions and membrane ruffles, respectively, upon treatment with the G protein activator aluminum fluoride. Aluminum fluoride-treatment of cells transfected with equivalent amounts of plasmid resulted in enhanced membrane ruffling, with protrusions appearing as Rac expression was lowered. Co-expression of the dominant negative, GTP binding-defective ARF6 T27N mutant inhibited the aluminum fluoride-induced ruffling observed in cells expressing Rac1, and the constitutive ruffling observed in cells expressing the activated Rac1 Q61L mutant. In contrast, co-expression of the GTP-binding-defective, T17N mutant of either Rac1 or Cdc42 with ARF6 did not inhibit the aluminum fluoride-induced surface protrusions, nor did inactivation of Rho with C3-transferase. These observations suggest that ARF6, a non-Rho family GTPase, can, by itself, alter cortical actin and can influence the ability of Rac1 to form lamellipodia, in part, by regulating its trafficking to the plasma membrane. (+info)
Coupling of coat assembly and vesicle budding to packaging of putative cargo receptors.
COPI-coated vesicle budding from lipid bilayers whose composition resembles mammalian Golgi membranes requires coatomer, ARF, GTP, and cytoplasmic tails of putative cargo receptors (p24 family proteins) or membrane cargo proteins (containing the KKXX retrieval signal) emanating from the bilayer surface. Liposome-derived COPI-coated vesicles are similar to their native counterparts with respect to diameter, buoyant density, morphology, and the requirement for an elevated temperature for budding. These results suggest that a bivalent interaction of coatomer with membrane-bound ARF[GTP] and with the cytoplasmic tails of cargo or putative cargo receptors is the molecular basis of COPI coat assembly and provide a simple mechanism to couple uptake of cargo to transport vesicle formation. (+info)
GCS1, an Arf guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for normal actin cytoskeletal organization in vivo and stimulates actin polymerization in vitro.
Recent cloning of a rat brain phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate binding protein, centaurin alpha, identified a novel gene family based on homology to an amino-terminal zinc-binding domain. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the protein with the highest homology to centaurin alpha is Gcs1p, the product of the GCS1 gene. GCS1 was originally identified as a gene conditionally required for the reentry of cells into the cell cycle after stationary phase growth. Gcs1p was previously characterized as a guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein for the small guanosine triphosphatase Arf1, and gcs1 mutants displayed vesicle-trafficking defects. Here, we have shown that similar to centaurin alpha, recombinant Gcs1p bound phosphoinositide-based affinity resins with high affinity and specificity. A novel GCS1 disruption strain (gcs1Delta) exhibited morphological defects, as well as mislocalization of cortical actin patches. gcs1Delta was hypersensitive to the actin monomer-sequestering drug, latrunculin-B. Synthetic lethality was observed between null alleles of GCS1 and SLA2, the gene encoding a protein involved in stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, synthetic growth defects were observed between null alleles of GCS1 and SAC6, the gene encoding the yeast fimbrin homologue. Recombinant Gcs1p bound to actin filaments, stimulated actin polymerization, and inhibited actin depolymerization in vitro. These data provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that Gcs1p interacts directly with the actin cytoskeleton in S. cerevisiae. (+info)
EFA6, a sec7 domain-containing exchange factor for ARF6, coordinates membrane recycling and actin cytoskeleton organization.
We have identified a human cDNA encoding a novel protein, exchange factor for ARF6 (EFA6), which contains Sec7 and pleckstrin homology domains. EFA6 promotes efficient guanine nucleotide exchange on ARF6 and is distinct from the ARNO family of ARF1 exchange factors. The protein localizes to a dense matrix on the cytoplasmic face of plasma membrane invaginations, induced on its expression. We show that EFA6 regulates endosomal membrane recycling and promotes the redistribution of transferrin receptors to the cell surface. Furthermore, expression of EFA6 induces actin-based membrane ruffles that are inhibited by co-expression of dominant-inhibitory mutant forms of ARF6 or Rac1. Our results demonstrate that by catalyzing nucleotide exchange on ARF6 at the plasma membrane and by regulating Rac1 activation, EFA6 coordinates endocytosis with cytoskeletal rearrangements. (+info)
Structural basis for the inhibitory effect of brefeldin A on guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins for ADP-ribosylation factors.
Protein secretion through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicular trafficking system is initiated by the binding of ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) to donor membranes, leading to recruitment of coatomer, bud formation, and eventual vesicle release. ARFs are approximately 20-kDa GTPases that are active with bound GTP and inactive with GDP bound. Conversion of ARF-GDP to ARF-GTP is regulated by guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins. All known ARF guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins contain a Sec7 domain of approximately 200 amino acids that includes the active site and fall into two classes that differ in molecular size and susceptibility to inhibition by the fungal metabolite brefeldin A (BFA). To determine the structural basis of BFA sensitivity, chimeric molecules were constructed by using sequences from the Sec7 domains of BFA-sensitive yeast Sec7 protein (ySec7d) and the insensitive human cytohesin-1 (C-1Sec7). Based on BFA inhibition of the activities of these molecules with recombinant yeast ARF2 as substrate, the Asp965-Met975 sequence in ySec7d was shown to be responsible for BFA sensitivity. A C-1Sec7 mutant in which Ser199, Asn204, and Pro209 were replaced with the corresponding ySec7d amino acids, Asp965, Gln970, and Met975, exhibited BFA sensitivity similar to that of recombinant ySec7d (rySec7d). Single replacement in C-1Sec7 of Ser199 or Pro209 resulted in partial inhibition by BFA, whereas replacement of Gln970 in ySec7d with Asn (as found in C-1Sec7) had no effect. As predicted, the double C-1Sec7 mutant with S199D and P209M was BFA-sensitive, demonstrating that Asp965 and Met975 in ySec7d are major molecular determinants of BFA sensitivity. (+info)
Characterization of the regulation of phospholipase D activity in the detergent-insoluble fraction of HL60 cells by protein kinase C and small G-proteins.
Phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been shown to be GTP-dependent both in vivo and in vitro. One protein that confers GTP sensitivity to PLD activity in vitro is the low-molecular-mass G-protein ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf). However, members of the Rho family and protein kinase C (PKC) have also been reported to activate PLD in various cell systems. We have characterized the stimulation of PLD in HL60 cell membranes by these proteins. The results demonstrate that a considerable proportion of HL60 PLD activity is located in a detergent-insoluble fraction of the cell membrane that is unlikely to be a caveolae-like domain, but is probably cytoskeletal. This PLD activity required the presence of Arf1, a Rho-family member and PKC for efficient catalysis of the lipid substrate, suggesting that the activity represents PLD1. We show that recombinant human PLD1b is regulated in a similar manner to HL60-membrane PLD, and that PKCalpha and PKCdelta are equally effective PLD activators. Therefore maximum PLD activity requires Arf, a Rho-family member and PKC, emphasizing the high degree of regulation of this enzyme. (+info)
The ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-related GTPase ARF-related protein binds to the ARF-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor cytohesin and inhibits the ARF-dependent activation of phospholipase D.
ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein (ARP) is a membrane-associated GTPase with remote similarity to the family of ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF). In a yeast two-hybrid screen designed to identify proteins interacting with ARP, we isolated a partial cDNA of the ARF-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor mSec7-1/cytohesin encoding its N terminus and most of the Sec7 domain (codons 1-200). ARP and ARP-Q79L (GTPase-negative ARP) exhibited a higher affinity to mSec7-1-(1-200) than ARP-T31N (nucleotide exchange-defective ARP) in the two-hybrid assay. Similarly, full-length [35S]mSec7-1/cytohesin was specifically adsorbed to glutathione-Sepharose loaded with glutathione S-transferase (GST)-ARP-Q79L, GST-ARP, or GST-ARP-T31N, the latter exhibiting the lowest binding affinity. Overexpression of ARP-Q79L, but not of ARP-T31N, in COS-7 cells reduced the fluorescence from co-expressed green fluorescent protein fused with mSec7-1/cytohesin or mSec7-2/ARNO in plasma membranes as detected by deconvolution microscopy. Recombinant ARP and ARP-Q79L, but not ARP-T31N, inhibited the phospholipase D (PLD) activity stimulated by mSec7-2/ARNO and ARF in a system of isolated membranes. Furthermore, transfection of HEK-293 cells with ARP or ARP-Q79L, but not ARP-T31N, inhibited the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-3 induced PLD stimulation and translocation of ARF from cytosol to membranes. These data suggest that the GTP-bound form of ARP specifically binds mSec7-1/cytohesin, and that ARP may be involved in a pathway inhibiting the ARF-controlled activity of PLD. (+info)