How can we boost IQs of "dull children"?: A late adoption study.
From 5,003 files of adopted children, 65 deprived children, defined as abused and/or neglected during infancy, were strictly selected with particular reference to two criteria: (i) They were adopted between 4 and 6 years of age, and (ii) they had an IQ <86 (mean = 77, SD = 6.3) before adoption. The average IQs of adopted children in lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) families were 85 (SD = 17) and 98 (SD = 14.6), respectively, at adolescence (mean age = 13.5 years). The results show (i) a significant gain in IQ dependent on the SES of the adoptive families (mean = 7.7 and mean = 19.5 IQ points in low and high SES, respectively), (ii) IQs after adoption are significantly correlated with IQs before adoption, and (iii) during adolescence, verbal IQs are significantly lower than performance IQs. (+info)
Adoption: a forgotten paediatric speciality.
OBJECTIVE: To study the medical, emotional, and developmental profile of children being considered for permanent substitute care. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of 100 adoption/permanency medicals. SETTING: All children considered by the adoption and permanency panel in Greenwich, south east London, between 1994 and 1998. OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis of medical reports completed using the British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering form C (under 5 years) or form D (over 5 years). These include the details of a physical examination, including vision, hearing, height, and weight; emotional and behavioural concerns expressed by the foster carer and school progress. RESULTS: These children have complex needs. Only 31 of the 100 children were considered unlikely to have significant medical, developmental, or emotional problems. CONCLUSIONS: Adoption medical work is becoming more specialised. Healthcare commissioners should establish minimum standards for the doctors involved in this work. As the NHS moves towards becoming a more primary care led organisation, this small service must not be forgotten. The NHS devotes few resources and little training to adoption. The medical input required to support adoption and fostering services should be recognised as a specialist paediatric service and adequately resourced. (+info)
Elevated blood lead levels among internationally adopted children--United States, 1998.
Lead poisoning has been reported recently among Chinese children adopted by U.S. citizens. However, little is known about the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among adoptees from China and other countries. Persistent sources of lead exposure outside the United States include leaded gasoline exhaust; industrial emissions; cottage industries (e.g., battery breaking and recycling plants); traditional medicines; and some cosmetics, ceramic ware, and foods. In 1998, approximately 15,000 orphans from countries outside the United States who were adopted abroad or were to be adopted in the United States by U.S. citizens were issued U.S. immigrant visas-a nearly two-fold increase over 1988 (L. Lewis, Immigrant and Visa Control and Reporting Division, VISA Office, Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. State Department, personal communication, August 1999). Some orphans have been abandoned for extended periods and have no obtainable medical history. Immigrants aged <15 years are not required to have serologic or blood tests either in their country of origin or on entry into the United States unless exposure to syphilis or human immunodeficiency virus is suspected. To obtain reports on the prevalence of elevated BLLs (> or =10 microg/dL) among international adoptees, CDC contacted 12 international adoption medical specialists identified through the Joint Council on International Children's Services and two collaborating medical specialists. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which suggest that international adoptees may arrive in the United States with elevated BLLs. (+info)
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a measles complication, in an internationally adopted child.
A healthy 13-year-old boy who had spent the first 4.5 years of his life in an orphanage in Thailand before adoption by an American couple became ill with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and died several months later. The boy had most likely contracted wild-type measles in Thailand. Measles complications are a risk in international adoptions. (+info)
The importance of a genetic link in mothers commissioning a surrogate baby in the UK.
Reproductive technologies have enabled genetic and gestational links between parents and children to become separate from social relationships and inter-personal ties within families. The meaning of family is discussed, by drawing on research with infertile women who become parents as the result of surrogacy. The complexities of family are highlighted by addressing the consequences of babies carried and delivered by women who are not the biological parents of the child, or by women who are the biological mother of the child but who relinquish their genetic material to another woman. In all, 29 women completed a questionnaire on various aspects of their infertility, surrogacy, and the importance of a genetic link. The study identified some characteristics of women who have become mothers as a result of surrogacy, and some of their reactions to this way of creating families. In general, women who could use their own genetic material tended to believe a genetic link was important. Those who could not use their own genetic material were less uniform in their beliefs about the importance of a genetic link. The cognitive dissonance observed in this population has implications for the future of reproductive technology assisting couples in becoming a family with or without genetic relatedness. (+info)
Interpretations, perspectives and intentions in surrogate motherhood.
In this paper we examine the questions "What does it mean to be a surrogate mother?" and "What would be an appropriate perspective for a surrogate mother to have on her pregnancy?" In response to the objection that such contracts are alienating or dehumanising since they require women to suppress their evolving perspective on their pregnancies, liberal supporters of surrogate motherhood argue that the freedom to contract includes the freedom to enter a contract to bear a child for an infertile couple. After entering the contract the surrogate may not be free to interpret her pregnancy as that of a non-surrogate mother, but there is more than one appropriate way of interpreting one's pregnancy. To restrict or ban surrogacy contracts would be to prohibit women from making other particular interpretations of their pregnancies they may wish to make, requiring them to live up to a culturally constituted image of ideal motherhood. We examine three interpretations of a "surrogate pregnancy" that are implicit in the views and arguments put forward by ethicists, surrogacy agencies, and surrogate mothers themselves. We hope to show that our concern in this regard goes beyond the view that surrogacy contracts deny or suppress the natural, instinctive or conventional interpretation of pregnancy. (+info)
The primary care physician's role in caring for internationally adopted children.
The rate of international adoption in the United States has been increasing. Internationally. adopted children have various medical, psychological, and developmental issues that need to be evaluated and addressed by primary care physicians. Full histories and physical examinations, developmental assessments, and screening tests are necessary for such children. Family concerns and cultural differences between the child and the adoptive family need to be addressed as well. (+info)
Specificity and heterogeneity in children's responses to profound institutional privation.
BACKGROUND: The sequelae of profound early privation are varied. AIMS: To delineate the behavioural patterns that are specifically associated with institutional privation. METHOD: A group of 165 children adopted from Romania before the age of 42 months were compared at 4 years and 6 years with 52 non-deprived UK children adopted in infancy. Dysfunction was assessed for seven domains of functioning. The groups were compared on which, and how many, domains were impaired. RESULTS: Attachment problems, inattention/overactivity, quasi-autistic features and cognitive impairment were associated with institutional privation, but emotional difficulties, poor peer relationships and conduct problems were not. Nevertheless, one-fifth of children who spent the longest time in institutions showed normal functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Attachment disorder behaviours, inattention/overactivity and quasi-autistic behaviour constitute institutional privation patterns. (+info)