Supplementation with iron and folic acid enhances growth in adolescent Indian girls.
The prevalence of anemia is high in adolescent girls in India, with over 70% anemic. Iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements have been shown to enhance adolescent growth elsewhere in the world. To confirm these results in India, a study was conducted in urban areas of Vadodora, India to investigate the effect of IFA supplements on hemoglobin, hunger and growth in adolescent girls 10-18 y of age. Results show that there was a high demand for IFA supplements and >90% of the girls consumed 85 out of 90 tablets provided. There was an increment of 17.3 g/L hemoglobin in the group of girls receiving IFA supplements, whereas hemoglobin decreased slightly in girls in the control group. Girls and parents reported that girls increased their food intake. A significant weight gain of 0.83 kg was seen in the intervention group, whereas girls in the control group showed little weight gain. The growth increment was greater in the 10- to 14-y-old age group than in the 15- to 18-y-old group, as expected, due to rapid growth during the adolescent spurt. IFA supplementation is recommended for growth promotion among adolescents who are underweight. (+info)
Nutrition in pregnancy: mineral and vitamin supplements.
Pregnancy is associated with physiologic changes that result in increased plasma volume and red blood cells and decreased concentrations of circulating nutrient-binding proteins and micronutrients. In many developing countries, these physiologic changes can be aggravated by undernutrition, leading to micronutrient deficiency states, such as anemia, that can have disastrous consequences for both mothers and newborn infants. Multiple micronutrients are often taken by pregnant women in developed countries, but their benefits are limited, except for prophylactic folic acid taken during the periconceptional period. Women in developing countries may benefit from multiple-micronutrient prophylaxis in pregnancy, but the underlying basis and rationale for changing from supplementation with iron and folate to supplementation with multiple micronutrients has not been debated in the context of existing program objectives. There is an urgent need for this discussion so that both program effectiveness and program efficacy can be improved. (+info)
Relation of childhood diet and body size to menarche and adolescent growth in girls.
Adolescent growth and development may be affected by factors such as dietary intake and body size from much earlier in childhood. In a longitudinal study of 67 Caucasian girls in Boston, Massachusetts, data were collected prospectively from birth during the 1930s and 1940s. Heights and weights were measured semiannually, and dietary history interviews were conducted with mothers. Stepwise linear regression methods were used to seek factors which best predicted age at menarche, adolescent peak height growth velocity, and the age at which peak growth velocity occurred. Girls who consumed more (energy-adjusted) animal protein and less vegetable protein at ages 3-5 years had earlier menarche, and girls aged 1-2 years with higher dietary fat intakes and girls aged 6-8 years with higher animal protein intakes became adolescents with earlier peak growth. Controlling for body size, girls who consumed more calories and animal protein 2 years before peak growth had higher peak growth velocity. These findings may have implications regarding adult diseases whose risks are associated with adolescent growth and development factors. (+info)
Energy and fat intakes of children and adolescents in the united states: data from the national health and nutrition examination surveys.
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors related to body weight and chronic disease risk are of interest because of recent increases in the prevalence of overweight. OBJECTIVE: Secular trends in energy and fat intakes of youths aged 2-19 y were assessed. Current intakes were compared with recommendations. DESIGN: Dietary 24-h recall data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and earlier national surveys were examined. RESULTS: Mean energy intake changed little from the 1970s to 1988-1994 except for an increase among adolescent females. Over the same time period, the mean percentage of energy from total and saturated fat decreased, but remained above recommendations, with overall means of 33.5% of energy from fat and 12.2% of energy from saturated fat. In 1988-1994, approximately 1 in 4 youths met the recommendations for intakes of fat and saturated fat and 3 in 4 met the recommendation for cholesterol intake. Beverages contributed 20-24% of energy across all ages and soft drinks provided 8% of energy in adolescents. Except for adolescent girls, beverage energy contributions were generally higher among overweight than nonoverweight youths; soft drink energy contribution was higher among overweight youths than among nonoverweight youths for all groups. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of evidence of a general increase in energy intake among youths despite an increase in the prevalence of overweight suggests that physical inactivity is a major public health challenge in this age group. Efforts to increase physical activity and decrease nonnutritive sources of energy may be important approaches to counter the rise in overweight prevalence. (+info)
Historical, cultural, political, and social influences on dietary patterns and nutrition in Australian Aboriginal children.
Before permanent European colonization 2 centuries ago, Australian Aborigines were preagriculturalist hunter-gatherers who had adapted extraordinarily well to life in a variety of habitats ranging from tropical forests, coastal and riverine environments, savannah woodlands, and grasslands to harsh, hot, and very arid deserts. Colonization had serious negative effects on Aboriginal society, well-being, and health, so much so that Aborigines are now the unhealthiest subgroup in Australian society. The change from active and lean hunter-gatherers to a more sedentary group of people whose diet is now predominantly Westernized has had, and continues to have, serious effects on their health, particularly in relation to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are highly prevalent among Aborigines. The contemporary diets of Australian Aborigines are energy rich and contain high amounts of fat, refined carbohydrates, and salt; they are also poor in fiber and certain nutrients, including folate, retinol, and vitamin E and other vitamins. Risks of development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in this population probably develop during late childhood and adolescence. This indicates a need for greater emphasis on health promotion and disease prevention than at present and a need to plan these in culturally sensitive, secure, and appropriate ways. Most information about Aboriginal diets is anecdotal or semiquantitative. More effort needs to be invested in studies that more clearly and precisely define dietary patterns in Aboriginal people, especially children, and how these patterns influence their growth, nutritional status, and health, prospectively. (+info)
Fat intake and nutritional status of children in China.
Although the fat intake of Chinese children is not critically high, on the basis of an 8-province survey, the fat intake of urban boys aged 12-15 y rose from approximately 17% of their total energy intake in 1989 to nearly 30% in 1993. In contrast, a national survey conducted in 1992 indicated that the average fat intake of rural boys and girls aged 2-15 y was insufficient to meet the growth needs of early childhood, ranging from approximately 16% to 20% of their total energy intake. The prevalence of underweight and stunting among Chinese children declined from 1990 to 1995, and there was a disparity between the number of those affected in urban areas compared with rural areas. In a 1991 dietary survey of Chinese boys <6 y, stunting appeared to be linked with a low intake of protein and fat. Data on schoolchildren aged 7-17 y showed an improvement in nutrition from 1991 to 1995, but the prevalence of a low weight to height ratio was markedly higher among urban 17-y-old girls. Overweight and obesity are increasing among urban children and are of particular concern at 11 and 12 y of age. Detailed studies should be conducted to analyze the major risk factors of overweight and obesity and to establish appropriate interventions. (+info)
Dietary fat intake and body mass index in Spanish children.
Our objectives were to describe the pattern of dietary fat intake and to present data on trends of growth in Spanish children in past decades. In 1984 a nationwide nutritional survey was conducted in Spain. The average nationwide fat intake was 42% of energy. Across different regions, saturated fat intakes ranged from 13% to 15% of energy and monounsaturated fat intakes ranged from 18% to 19% of energy. More recently, some surveys were conducted at a regional or local level. In children aged 6-10 y, total fat intake ranged from 38% to 48% of energy, of which saturated fat intake ranged from 16% to 18% and monounsaturated fat ranged from 19% to 20%. In children aged 11-14 y, total fat intake ranged from 41% to 51% of energy, of which saturated fat intake ranged from 12% to 18% and monounsaturated fat intake accounted for 20%. In our region of Aragon, we observed a significant trend in children's growth, especially when we accounted for body mass index. The results reflect an increasing total fat consumption in Spain, especially of saturated and monounsaturated fat. The following question remains unanswered: what percentage of fat intake should be recommended when monounsaturated fat is the principal source of fat? Trends on body mass index values in children of our region during the past decades could be related to the amount of fat intake in our population. To confirm these findings we must measure dietary fat intake and nutritional status in the same population of children and adolescents. (+info)
Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: the CHIPS Study.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines. METHODS: Low-fat snacks were added to 55 vending machines in a convenience sample of 12 secondary schools and 12 worksites. Four pricing levels (equal price, 10% reduction, 25% reduction, 50% reduction) and 3 promotional conditions (none, low-fat label, low-fat label plus promotional sign) were crossed in a Latin square design. Sales of low-fat vending snacks were measured continuously for the 12-month intervention. RESULTS: Price reductions of 10%, 25%, and 50% on low-fat snacks were associated with significant increases in low-fat snack sales; percentages of low-fat snack sales increased by 9%, 39%, and 93%, respectively. Promotional signage was independently but weakly associated with increases in low-fat snack sales. Average profits per machine were not affected by the vending interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both adult and adolescent populations. (+info)