Pubertal course of persistently short children born small for gestational age (SGA) compared with idiopathic short children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA).
OBJECTIVE: Few data are available on the pubertal development of children born small for gestational age (SGA) who fail to show catch-up growth. DESIGN: A longitudinal analysis compared the pubertal course of persistently short children born SGA compared to children with idiopathic short stature who were appropriate for gestational age (AGA). One hundred and twenty-eight short children (height SDS<-1.7), including 76 (31 boys) born SGA and 52 (22 boys) born AGA, were regularly followed from early childhood to completion of puberty. RESULTS: Puberty was attained at normal age (10.5-14 Years in boys, 9.5-13 Years in girls) for most children in both the SGA and AGA groups (boys, 80% and 77%; girls, 76% and 78% respectively). The duration of puberty was similar in the SGA and AGA groups. Menarche occurred at normal age range but was significantly earlier in the SGA girls (P<0.01 by ANOVA). Despite the similar total pubertal growth, the patterns of growth differed significantly: SGA group - accelerated growth and bone maturation rates from onset of puberty with peak height velocity at Tanner stages 2-3, followed by a decelerated growth rate and earlier fusion of the epiphyses; AGA group - steady progression of bone elongation and maturation throughout puberty (pubertal growth, P<0.05 in both sexes; bone maturation, P<0.001 in both sexes). Final height in the SGA group was compromised compared with their target height (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Children born SGA have a normal pubertal course with a distinct pubertal growth pattern. This pattern may represent an altered regulation of their growth modalities. (+info)
The neurodevelopmental progress of infants less than 33 weeks into adolescence.
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown an increased incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment in very preterm survivors at school age compared with controls. AIM: To compare findings in the same cohort at 8 years and 15 years. METHODS: A total of 151 of the 224 eligible infants born before 33 weeks of gestation from 1979 to 1982, and who were living in the UK, were assessed at 8 and 15 years. Items common to both assessments were compared to evaluate changes in neurodevelopmental function. The assessment included a structured neurological examination, psychometric tests using the WISC-R (in subjects born in 1981-82), a test of visuomotor integration (Beery), and a school questionnaire. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the proportion of subjects classified as impaired with disability from 11% at 8 to 22% at 14-15 years of age. The proportion of subjects classified as impaired without disability increased from 16% at 8 to 26% at 14-15 years of age. Full scale IQ decreased from 104 to 95 from childhood to adolescence, and more adolescents (24%) were requiring extra educational provision than they had at the age of 8 years (15%). CONCLUSION: Results indicate that between the ages of 8 and 15 years in this cohort of very preterm survivors there is an apparent deterioration in neurodevelopmental outcome category, cognitive function, and extra educational support. It is not clear whether this represents a genuine deterioration in neurocognitive function or whether it represents the expression of pre-existing cerebral pathology in an increasingly complex environment. (+info)
Parents of urban adolescents in Harlem, New York, and the Internet: a cross-sectional survey on preferred resources for health information.
BACKGROUND: Vulnerable populations suffer disproportionately from a variety of health conditions. Access to health information is an important component of health promotion. Reports suggest that while health providers and print media are traditional sources of information, the Internet may be becoming an increasingly important resource for consumers. Particularly, for parents of urban adolescents of color, the Internet could prove to be a valuable asset in helping them understand adolescent health and behavioral issues. OBJECTIVE: To determine the types of adolescent health and behavioral issues of concern to parents of color and to assess their preference for sources of health information, including the Internet. METHODS: A confidential, self-administered survey was administered to parents (largely of African American and Hispanic descent) of 9th-grade students over a 2-year period during 2001-2002 in Harlem, NY. The instrument assessed health and behavioral topics of concern, preferred resources for information, ownership and utilization patterns of computers and the Internet, and interest in obtaining additional computer/Internet training. RESULTS: A total of 419 surveys were completed; 165 in 2001 (67% response rate) and 254 in 2002 (no response rate available). Analysis of responses indicated a substantial degree of interest in obtaining information about a variety of adolescent health issues, including: HIV, sexually transmitted infections, , mental health concerns and relationships with family and peers. While home ownership of computers (84%) and access to the Internet were reasonably high (74%), use of the Internet for health information was low (14%). However, 62% of parents indicated a strong desire to have more instruction on computers and the Internet. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to other sources of health information, the Internet is underutilized by urban parents of color. Additional research is needed to identify strategies to improve utilization and assess subsequent impact on parenting activities. (+info)
Anthropometric measurements and growth as predictors of low-back pain: a cohort study of children followed up from the age of 11 to 22 years.
Body height is an alleged risk factor for low-back pain (LBP) in adulthood, but its importance is obscure during childhood and adolescence. We studied growth for its association with the incidence of LBP in a population study of 430 children who were examined five times: at the age 11,12,13,14 and 22 years. Body height and weight and the degrees of trunk asymmetry, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were measured at every examination. The history of LBP was obtained by a structured questionnaire at the ages of 14 and 22 years. The incidence of LBP was defined as pain, which occurred on eight or more days during the past year among those 338 children who had been free from LBP until 14 years of age. Growth of body height between 11 years and 14 years of age predicted the incidence of LBP. Adjusted for sex, the odds ratio (with 95% confidence interval) per an increment of one SD (4.3 cm) was 1.32 (1.06--1.65), the P value for trend being 0.03. Growth after 14 years of age was inversely related to the incidence of LBP, but the association did not reach statistical significance (P for trend=0.06). Other anthropometric measurements or their changes were not found to predict LBP. Our results are not compatible with the old myth that spinal growth actually contributes to LBP. But abundant growth in early adolescence may be a risk factor for subsequent LBP. (+info)
Relations of moderate and vigorous physical activity to fitness and fatness in adolescents.
BACKGROUND: It is unclear how moderate and vigorous intensities of physical activity (PA) are associated with cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and percentage of body fat (%BF) in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that vigorous PA, to a greater degree than moderate PA, would be associated with better CVF and lower %BF. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 421 black and white high school students (x age: 16 y). PA was measured with 5 d of accelerometry and expressed in min/d of moderate or vigorous PA. CVF was measured with a multistage treadmill test and was expressed as the oxygen consumption at a heart rate of 170 bpm. %BF was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple regressions were used to determine the degree to which variance in CVF and %BF was explained by PA, after control for age, sex, race, and the sex x race interaction. RESULTS: A higher index for CVF was associated with higher amounts of moderate and vigorous PA; more variance was explained by vigorous than by moderate PA. Lower %BF was associated with higher amounts of vigorous PA but not with the amount of moderate PA. CONCLUSION: Black and white adolescents who engaged in relatively large amounts of free-living vigorous exercise were likely to be relatively fit and lean. (+info)
Impaired vascular growth in late adolescence after intrauterine growth restriction.
BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow in a fetus small for gestational age indicates true fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We tested the hypothesis that IUGR with abnormal fetal blood flow is associated with long-term abnormal vascular morphology and function in adolescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective study, vascular mechanical properties of the common carotid artery (CCA), abdominal aorta, and popliteal artery (PA) were assessed by echo-tracking sonography in 21 adolescents with IUGR and abnormal fetal aortic blood flow and in 23 adolescents with normal fetal growth and normal fetal aortic blood flow. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation of the brachial artery was measured by high-resolution ultrasound. After adjustment for body surface area and sex, the IUGR group had significantly smaller end-diastolic vessel diameters than the referents in the abdominal aorta and PA (mean difference, 1.7 mm [95% CI, 0.62 to 2.74] and 0.6 mm [95% CI, 0.25 to 1.02], respectively) (P=0.003 and P=0.002, respectively), with a similar trend in the CCA (P=0.09). A higher resting heart rate was observed in the IUGR group (P=0.01). No differences were found in stiffness or in endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR caused by placental insufficiency appears to be associated with impaired vascular growth persisting into young adulthood in both men and women. The smaller aortic dimensions and the higher resting heart rate seen in adolescents with previous IUGR may be of importance for future cardiovascular health. (+info)
Effect of body mass index changes between ages 5 and 14 on blood pressure at age 14: findings from a birth cohort study.
Weight reduction in clinical populations of severely obese children has been shown to have beneficial effects on blood pressure, but little is known about the effect of weight gain among children in the general population. This study compares the mean blood pressure at 14 years of age with the change in overweight status between ages 5 and 14. Information from 2794 children born in Brisbane, Australia, and who were followed up since birth and had body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure measurements at ages 5 and 14 were used. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure at age 14 was the main outcomes and different patterns of change in BMI from age 5 to 14 were the main exposure. Those who changed from being overweight at age 5 to having normal BMI at age 14 had similar mean blood pressures to those who had a normal BMI at both time points: age- and sex-adjusted mean difference in systolic blood pressure 1.54 (-0.38, 3.45) mm Hg and in diastolic blood pressure 0.43 (-0.95, 1.81) mm Hg. In contrast, those who were overweight at both ages or who had a normal BMI at age 5 and were overweight at age 14 had higher blood pressure at age 14 than those who had a normal BMI at both times. These effects were independent of a range of potential confounding factors. Our findings suggest that programs that successfully result in children changing from overweight to normal-BMI status for their age may have important beneficial effects on subsequent blood pressure. (+info)
Developmental considerations in the context of pediatric transplantation.
This paper describes important psychological and psychosocial considerations in pediatric transplantation that can be valuable for all pediatric health care providers in the transplant setting. A developmental perspective is necessary in the consideration of these implications throughout the transplant process. Each age range (infancy, toddler and preschool, school age, and adolescence) is discussed with its normal associated developmental milestones as well as the impact transplantation can have on these milestones. Appropriate evaluation and referrals are also explained in the context of the pediatric transplant setting. (+info)