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(1/150) Subjective assessment of adnexal masses with the use of ultrasonography: an analysis of interobserver variability and experience.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the subjective assessment of ultrasonographic images for discriminating between malignant and benign adnexal masses. STUDY DESIGN: The study was prospective. Initially, one ultrasonographer preoperatively assessed 300 consecutive patients with adnexal masses. Subsequently, the recorded transparent photographic prints were independently assessed by five investigators, with different qualifications and level of experience, who were also given a brief clinical history of the patients (i.e. the age, menstrual status, family history of ovarian cancer, previous pelvic surgery and the presenting symptoms). The diagnostic performance of the observers was compared with the histopathology classification of malignant or benign tumors. The end-points were accuracy, interobserver agreement and the possible effect of experience. RESULTS: The first ultrasonographer and the most experienced investigator both obtained an accuracy of 92%. There was very good agreement between these two investigators in the classification of the adnexal masses (Cohen's kappa 0.85). The less experienced observers obtained a significantly lower accuracy, which varied between 82% and 87%. Their interobserver agreement was moderate to good (Cohen's kappa 0.52 to 0.76). CONCLUSION: Experienced ultrasonographers using some clinical information and their subjective assessment of ultrasonographic images can differentiate malignant from benign masses in most cases. The accuracy and the level of interobserver agreement are both correlated with experience. About 10% of masses were extremely difficult to classify (only < 50% of assessors were correct).  (+info)

(2/150) Artificial neural network models for the preoperative discrimination between malignant and benign adnexal masses.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to generate and evaluate artificial neural network (ANN) models from simple clinical and ultrasound-derived criteria to predict whether or not an adnexal mass will have histological evidence of malignancy. DESIGN: The data were collected prospectively from 173 consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo surgical investigations at the University Hospitals, Leuven, between August 1994 and August 1996. The outcome measure was the histological classification of excised tissues as malignant (including borderline) or benign. METHODS: Age, menopausal status and serum CA 125 levels and sonographic features of the adnexal mass were encoded as variables. The ANNs were trained on a randomly selected set of 116 patient records and tested on the remainder (n = 57). The performance of each model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared with corresponding data from an established risk of malignancy index (RMI) and a logistic regression model. RESULTS: There were 124 benign masses, five of borderline malignancy and 44 invasive cancers (of which 29% were metastatic); 37% of patients with a malignant or borderline tumor had stage I disease. The best ANN gave an area under the ROC curve of 0.979 for the whole dataset, a sensitivity of 95.9% and specificity of 93.5%. The corresponding values for the RMI were 0.882, 67.3% and 91.1%, and for the logistic regression model 0.956, 95.9% and 85.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: An ANN can be trained to provide clinically accurate information, on whether or not an adnexal mass is malignant, from the patient's menopausal status, serum CA 125 levels, and some simple ultrasonographic criteria.  (+info)

(3/150) Successful laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion during week 25 of a twin pregnancy.

Adnexal torsion is a rare occurrence during pregnancy. Here we present a case of adnexal torsion during the 25th week of pregnancy, which was managed laparoscopically. The woman had achieved a successful twin pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. She was admitted to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasound with colour Doppler mapping of the intra-ovarian blood flow showed adnexal torsion. Laparoscopic management was successfully carried out.  (+info)

(4/150) Prospective cross-validation of Doppler ultrasound examination and gray-scale ultrasound imaging for discrimination of benign and malignant pelvic masses.

OBJECTIVE: To cross-validate, prospectively, the diagnostic performance of established ultrasound methods for discrimination of benign and malignant pelvic masses. METHODS: A total of 173 consecutive women with a pelvic mass judged clinically to be of adnexal origin underwent preoperative ultrasound examination including color and spectral Doppler techniques. A total of 149 tumors were benign, and 24 were malignant. The sensitivity and false-positive rate with regard to malignancy were calculated for the following methods, using cut-off values recommended in previous publications: Lerner score; ultrasound morphology, i.e. tumors without solid components being classified as benign and tumors with solid components as malignant; tumor color score; pulsatility index; resistance index; time-averaged maximum velocity; peak systolic velocity; the combined use of ultrasound morphology and tumor color score and the combined use of ultrasound morphology and peak systolic velocity. Sensitivity and false-positive rate were also calculated for subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image and for subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image supplemented with subjective evaluation of color Doppler ultrasound examination. The confidence with which the diagnosis was made, based on subjective evaluation, was rated on a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image was by far the best method for distinguishing benign from malignant tumors (sensitivity 88%, false-positive rate 4%), followed in descending order by subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image supplemented with color Doppler examination, the Lerner score and the time-averaged maximum velocity. Adding Doppler examination to subjective evaluation of the gray-scale image did not increase the number of correct diagnoses, but it increased the confidence with which a correct diagnosis was made in 14% of tumors. In 11 tumors (6% of the series as a whole), the addition of Doppler examination changed the diagnosis based on subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image from an incorrect (n = 1) or uncertain (n = 10) diagnosis to a correct and confident diagnosis. CONCLUSION: In experienced hands, subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image is the best ultrasound method for discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses. The main advantage of adding Doppler examination to subjective evaluation of the gray-scale image is an increase in the confidence with which a correct diagnosis is made.  (+info)

(5/150) Prospective evaluation of a logistic model based on sonographic morphologic and color Doppler findings developed to predict adnexal malignancy.

To assess prospectively a logistic model based on sonographic morphologic and color Doppler findings, which had been developed to predict adnexal malignancy, 167 consecutive and unselected patients (mean age, 45.7 yr; range, 17 to 81 yr; 113 [67.7%] premenopausal and 54 [32.3%] postmenopausal) diagnosed as having an adnexal mass and scheduled for surgery were prospectively included in this study. All patients were evaluated by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasonography. The probability of adnexal malignancy was estimated prior to surgery, applying a logistic model developed previously. A probability of malignancy greater than 75% was considered to assess model performance. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated for the model. In all cases definitive histopathologic diagnosis was obtained. One hundred and twenty-five (74.9%) benign and 42 (25.1%) malignant tumors were found. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the model were 85.7% (95% confidence intervals, 71.4% to 94.6%), 100% (95% confidence intervals, 97.1% to 100%), 100% (95% confidence intervals, 90.3% to 100%), and 95.4% (95% confidence intervals, 90.3% to 98.3%), respectively. Overall accuracy was 96.4% (95% confidence intervals, 91.3% to 98.7%). Our results confirm the validity of the proposed logistic model in predicting adnexal malignancy.  (+info)

(6/150) Comparison of Lerner score, Doppler ultrasound examination, and their combination for discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the combined use of Lerner's morphologic score and color Doppler ultrasound examination results in better discrimination of benign and malignant adnexal masses than the use of Lerner's score alone or Doppler variables alone. DESIGN: One hundred and seventy-three consecutive women with a pelvic mass judged clinically to be of adnexal origin underwent preoperative ultrasound examination including color and spectral Doppler techniques. One hundred and forty-nine tumors were benign and 24 malignant. The sensitivity and false-positive rate with regard to malignancy were calculated for Lerner's score, six Doppler variables and combinations of Lerner's score and Doppler variables. Previously defined gray scale and Doppler criteria of malignancy were used and tested prospectively. The best method was defined as that detecting most malignancies with the lowest false-positive rate. RESULTS: Lerner's score had a sensitivity of 92% and a false-positive rate of 36%. The best Doppler variable--time-averaged maximum velocity--had similar diagnostic properties with a sensitivity of 100% and a false-positive rate of 41%. Combining Lerner's score with Doppler measurement of time-averaged maximum velocity--i.e. requiring both Lerner's score and time-averaged maximum velocity to indicate malignancy for a malignant diagnosis to be made--had a sensitivity of 92% and a false-positive rate of 19%. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of Lerner's score and measurement of time-averaged maximum velocity is a better method for discrimination of benign and malignant adnexal masses than the use of Lerner's score alone or Doppler ultrasound examination alone. The clinical value of the combined method needs to be cross-validated prospectively in a new series of tumors.  (+info)

(7/150) Transvaginal ultrasonography associated with colour Doppler energy in the diagnosis of hydrosalpinx.

The aims of this prospective study were to investigate the accuracy of B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography alone, using the typical finding of the presence of an elongated shaped mass with incomplete septa, in the screening of hydrosalpinx in women undergoing surgery for gynaecological diseases, and to determine the predictive value of this method combined with colour Doppler energy (CDE) imaging evaluation and CA125 concentrations in differentiating hydrosalpinx from other adnexal masses. In the first part of the study, 378 consecutive pre-menopausal non-pregnant women were submitted to transvaginal ultrasonography alone before surgery. In the second part of the study, 256 adnexal masses underwent transvaginal ultrasonography combined with CDE imaging evaluation associated with spectral Doppler analysis and plasma concentrations of CA125. Sensitivity and specificity for the ultrasonographic screening were 84.6 and 99.7% respectively, calculated for each adnexum (n = 756) and 93.3 and 99.6% respectively, calculated for each mass, for differentiating hydrosalpinx from other adnexal masses. The CDE imaging and the evaluation of CA125 plasma concentrations do not seem to increase the accuracy of B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography. Inter- and intra-observer agreement, expressed in terms of k-values, was high (0.87 and 0.93 respectively). In conclusion, transvaginal ultrasonography alone is a useful method of detection of hydrosalpinx.  (+info)

(8/150) Contrast-enhanced sonography in the examination of benign and malignant adnexal masses.

Our objective was to characterize the properties of an intravascular ultrasonographic contrast agent in examination of adnexal masses and to compare contrast agent properties between benign and malignant adnexal tumors. Fifty-eight consecutively examined women with suspected ovarian tumors were examined preoperatively by power Doppler ultrasonography, first without and then with contrast agent enhancement (Levovist). Fourteen women had ovarian cancer, 3 had borderline ovarian tumors, 18 had benign ovarian neoplasms, and 23 had functional adnexal cystic masses or endometriomas. The effect of the contrast agent was evaluated visually and by using computerized power Doppler signal intensity measurements. In visual evaluation, the brightness of the power Doppler signal and the amount of recognizable vascular areas increased in each tumor after contrast agent administration. The number of vessels in power Doppler ultrasonograms, both before and after contrast agent enhancement, was significantly higher in malignant than in benign adnexal masses, as also was the increase in the number of recognizable vessels after contrast agent administration. Contrast agent uptake time was significantly shorter in malignant than in benign tumors. No significant differences were found in the power Doppler signal intensities or their changes between benign and malignant tumors. In conclusion, use of sonographic contrast agent facilitates imaging of tumor vessels. For differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, the kinetic properties of the contrast agent, such as uptake and washout times, may have more potential than the use of the contrast agent in anatomic imaging of the tumor vessels.  (+info)