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(1/486) Women's interest in vaginal microbicides.

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

(2/486) Mucosal vaccination strategies for women.

Women were immunized orally, rectally, or vaginally with a recombinant cholera toxin B-containing vaccine to determine which of these mucosal immunization routes generate the greatest levels of antibody in the female genital tract and rectum. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of cholera toxin B-specific IgA and IgG antibody in serum and secretions before and after three immunizations. Each immunization route similarly increased specific IgG in serum and specific IgA in saliva. Only the vaginal route increased IgA antibodies in genital tract secretions and could be shown to induce a local IgG response. However, vaginal immunization failed to produce antibody in the rectum. In a similar fashion, rectal immunization elicited highest concentrations of locally derived IgA and IgG antibody in the rectum but was ineffective for generating antibody in the genital tract. The data suggest that local immunization may induce the greatest immune responses in the female genital tract and rectum of humans.  (+info)

(3/486) Pharmacokinetics of natural progesterone administered in the form of a vaginal tablet.

Our study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of natural progesterone administered in the novel formula of an effervescent vaginal tablet. Fifty post-menopausal women, with a median age of 43.5 years (range 28-55), volunteered to participate in the research. All women discontinued their hormonal replacement therapy 1 month prior to the study. The pharmacokinetics of 50 and 100 mg of progesterone administered as a vaginal tablet were evaluated. After the initial administration of 50 mg or 100 mg, a mean serum Cmax of 20.43 +/- 8.01 nmol/l and 31.61 +/- 12.62 nmol/l (P < 0.0004) was reached at a Tmax of 6.1 +/- 2.63 and 6.4 +/- 3.35 h respectively. The terminal half-life was 13.18 +/- 1.3 and 13.7 +/- 1.05 h respectively. Continuous use of the 100-mg tablet resulted in a mean serum progesterone concentration of 26.08 +/- 13.96 nmol/l and 21.42 +/- 16.32 nmol/l after 14 and 30 days respectively. Women >40 years were found to have a significantly lower Tmax compared to younger women (P = 0.02). The continuous use of vaginal progesterone did not influence the hormonal, liver or lipid profiles evaluated. Only three (6%) women suffered from mild vaginal irritation. Natural progesterone given as a vaginal tablet is well tolerated, safe and an easily administered treatment. Even in a non-oestrogenized vagina the absorption was efficient and the 100 mg dosage resulted in adequate serum progesterone concentrations.  (+info)

(4/486) Estradiol with or without progesterone and ambulatory blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether transdermal estradiol and intravaginal progesterone given in doses to mimic the premenopausal state would lower blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women were studied in each of 3 conditions: on placebo, after 8 weeks of transdermal estradiol 0.2 mg twice per week, and again 2 weeks after addition of intravaginal progesterone 300 mg/d. Women were studied at each point after 2 days of 100 mmol/d sodium intake. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP monitoring was performed, and blood was assayed for estradiol, progesterone, and hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). ANOVA with pairwise comparisons was used for analysis. Urinary sodium excretion was similar at each time point. Levels of estrogen and progesterone similar to those in premenopausal women were achieved. On estradiol, nocturnal systolic BP (110+/-3 mm Hg), diastolic BP (63+/-2 mm Hg), and mean BP (77+/-2 mm Hg) fell significantly (P<0.02) compared with placebo systolic BP (116+/-2 mm Hg), diastolic BP (68+/-2 mm Hg), and mean BP (82+/-2 mm Hg). Daytime BP followed the same trend but was significantly lower only for mean BP. There was no activation of the RAAS. The addition of progesterone resulted in no further fall in BP but a significant activation of the RAAS. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed, administration of estradiol with or without progesterone not only did not raise BP but rather substantially lowered BP. This BP-lowering effect may be responsible for the lower incidence of hypertension in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women.  (+info)

(5/486) Does an acidic medium enhance the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol for pre-abortion cervical priming?

Absorption pharmacokinetics reveal a relationship between plasma concentrations of misoprostol and its therapeutic effect. To achieve a constant plasma profile and optimal efficacy, it is important to develop a medium that ensures complete dissolution of vaginal misoprostol tablets. Vaginal misoprostol is said to liquefy better in an acidic medium; thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether a 200 microg misoprostol tablet dissolved in acetic acid would be more efficacious than 200 microg misoprostol dissolved in water for pre-abortion cervical priming. A total of 120 healthy nulliparous women requesting legal termination of pregnancy between 6-12 weeks gestation were allocated randomly to either of the study groups. Vacuum aspiration was performed 3-4 h after insertion of the misoprostol tablet. Using Hegar's dilator, the degree of cervical dilatation before operation was measured. Of 60 women, 14 (23%) achieved a cervical dilatation of >/=8 mm when the misoprostol dose was dissolved in acetic acid; 12 (20%) achieved a similar cervical dilatation when the dose was dissolved in water. The mean cervical dilatation for the acid and water media used was 6.3 mm and 6.2 mm respectively; these differences were not statistically significant, neither were pre-operative and intra-operative blood losses statistically different between the two groups. Twenty-four (40%) and four (7%) respectively of women in whom a water medium was used experienced vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain; 20 (33%) and 0 women respectively among those in whom an acetic acid medium was used experienced vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. These differences in side effects were not statistically significant. Our study shows that the use of acetic acid to dissolve vaginal misoprostol does not improve the efficacy in achieving successful cervical dilatation for pre-abortion cervical priming.  (+info)

(6/486) Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus.

The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF.  (+info)

(7/486) Ovulation and estrus characteristics in crossbred Brahman heifers treated with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert in combination with prostaglandin F2alpha and estradiol benzoate.

Crossbred Brahman heifers (n = 60) were studied to determine the effect of a 7-d intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (INSERT) in combination with PG (Lutalyse; 25 mg i.m.) and estradiol benzoate (EB; .5 mg i.m.) on time of ovulation and estrous behavior. In Phase I, heifers at unknown stages of the estrous cycle were assigned by BW and body condition score to one of the three treatments on d 0: 1) INSERT for 7 d and PG on d 7 (CONTROL; n = 10); 2) INSERT for 7 d, PG on d 7, and EB 24 h after INSERT removal (EB24; n = 10); or 3) INSERT for 7 d, PG on d 7, and EB 48 h after INSERT removal (EB48; n = 10). Blood samples were collected every 8 h after INSERT removal. Also, blood sampling and ultrasonography began 8 h after the onset of estrus, determined with HeatWatch devices, and every 4 h thereafter to detect ovulation. In Phase II, Phase-I treatments (n = 10/treatments) were replicated, but only behavioral estrus data were collected to minimize handling of heifers. Frequent handling of heifers did not influence (P > .1) the interval from INSERT removal to the onset of HeatWatch and visual estrus and duration of estrus, so behavioral estrus data were combined for Phases I and II. Interval from INSERT removal to HeatWatch estrus was decreased (P < .05) in EB24 (45.5 h) vs EB48 (55.9 h) and CONTROL (59.2 h). Interval from INSERT removal to ovulation differed (P < .04) between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (93.5, 74.5, and 78.9 h, respectively). Ovulatory follicle size was similar (P > .1) between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (14.4, 12.5, and 14.1 mm, respectively). Duration of estrus was similar for CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (14.0, 15.1, and 17.6 h, respectively). No difference (P > . 1) was observed in number of mounts received between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (28.0, 25.7, and 39.4, respectively), but number of mounts received increased in Phase II vs Phase I (40.0 and 22.2, respectively; P < .05). In conclusion, EB hastened the interval from INSERT removal to ovulation without altering duration of estrus or number of mounts received. Frequent handling of heifers did not affect interval to first mount received after INSERT removal or duration of estrus, but it decreased the total number of mounts received.  (+info)

(8/486) Luteal support with micronized progesterone following in-vitro fertilization using a down-regulation protocol with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist: a comparative study between vaginal and oral administration.

This study aimed to compare the efficacy of micronized progesterone administered as luteal support following ovulation induction for in-vitro fertilization (IVF)- embryo transfer in cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, either orally (200 mgx4/day) or vaginally (100 mgx2/day) and to characterize the luteal phase hormonal profile during such treatments. A total of 64 high responder patients requiring intracytoplasmic sperm injection due to male factor infertility were prospectively randomized into two treatment groups. Patients treated orally or vaginally were comparable in age (31.9 +/- 6.1 versus 30.6 +/- 5.2; mean +/- SD), number of oocytes retrieved (17 +/- 8.2 versus 18 +/- 7.0), and number of embryos transferred (3.1 +/- 1.2 versus 2.7 +/- 0.9) per cycle. Following low dose vaginal treatment, a significantly higher implantation rate (30.7 versus 10.7%, P < 0.01), but similar clinical pregnancy rate (47.0 versus 33.3%) and ongoing pregnancy rate (41.1 versus 20.0%) was observed, compared with oral treatment. In conception cycles, luteal serum progesterone and oestrogen concentrations did not differ between the treatment groups. In non-conception cycles, late luteal progesterone concentrations were significantly lower following vaginal treatment. As low dose micronized progesterone administered vaginally is simple, easy and well tolerated, it could be recommended as the method of choice for luteal support, especially for high responder patients at risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.  (+info)