Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats.
The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion. (+info)
Differential regulation of uncoupling protein-1, -2 and -3 gene expression by sympathetic innervation in brown adipose tissue of thermoneutral or cold-exposed rats.
The control of uncoupling protein-1, -2 and -3 (UCP-1, UCP-2, UCP-3) mRNA levels by sympathetic innervation in rats was investigated by specific and sensitive RT-PCR assays. In rats reared at thermoneutrality (25 degrees C), unilateral surgical sympathetic denervation of interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) markedly reduced the UCP-1 mRNA level (-38%) as compared with the contralateral innervated BAT pad, but was without significant effect on UCP-2 and -3 mRNA levels. Cold exposure (7 days, 4 degrees C) markedly increased UCP-1 (+180%), UCP-2 (+115%) and UCP-3 (+195%) mRNA levels in interscapular BAT. Unilateral sympathetic denervation prevented the cold-induced rise in BAT UCP-1 and UCP-2 mRNAs, but not that in BAT UCP-3 mRNA. Results were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These data indicate a differential endocrine control of UCP-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression in rat BAT both at thermoneutrality and during prolonged cold exposure. (+info)
Nuclear bodies are usual constituents in tissues of hibernating dormice.
In previous studies we demonstrated in several tissues of the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius that during hibernation cell nuclei contain particular structural constituents absent in euthermia. In the present study we examine the same tissues in euthermic and hibernating individuals of the edible dormouse Glis glis in order to investigate possible modifications of nuclear structural constituents occurring during hibernation in this species. Edible dormice were captured in the wild and maintained in an external animal house. Samples of liver, pancreas, brown adipose tissue and adrenal cortex were taken from three hibernating and three euthermic animals and processed for resin embedding. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies were carried out on cell nuclei of these tissues. The most evident feature of cell nuclei of hibernating dormice was the presence of several nuclear bodies, namely fibro-granular material, amorphous bodies, coiled bodies, perichromatin granule-like granules and nucleoplasmic fibrils, the distribution of which was peculiar to each tissue. No one of these constituents was detectable during euthermia. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that they contain some splicing factors. Apart from some differences, maybe due to the different characteristics of lethargy, the nuclear bodies found in edible dormice were morphologically and immunocytochemically similar to those previously described in the same tissues of hazel dormice. They therefore seem to be strictly correlated to the hibernating state. If they represent storage and/or assembly sites of splicing factors to be rapidly used upon arousal, they could represent a usual structural feature in cells of hibernating species. (+info)
ATP can stimulate exocytosis in rat brown adipocytes without apparent increases in cytosolic Ca2+ or G protein activation.
Extracellular ATP activates large increases in cell surface area and membrane turnover in rat brown adipocytes (Pappone, P. A., and Lee, S. C. 1996. J. Gen. Physiol. 108:393-404). We used whole-cell patch clamp membrane capacitance measurements of membrane surface area concurrently with fura-2 ratio imaging of intracellular calcium to test whether these purinergic membrane responses are triggered by cytosolic calcium increases or G protein activation. Increasing cytosolic calcium with adrenergic stimulation, calcium ionophore, or calcium-containing pipette solutions did not cause exocytosis. Extracellular ATP increased membrane capacitance in the absence of extracellular calcium with internal calcium strongly buffered to near resting levels. Purinergic stimulation still activated exocytosis and endocytosis in the complete absence of intracellular and extracellular free calcium, but endocytosis predominated. Modulators of G protein function neither triggered nor inhibited the initial ATP-elicited capacitance changes, but GTPgammaS or cytosolic nucleotide depletion did reduce the cells' capacity to mount multiple purinergic responses. These results suggest that calcium modulates purinergically-stimulated membrane trafficking in brown adipocytes, but that ATP responses are initiated by some other signal that remains to be identified. (+info)
Metabolism and morphology of brown adipose tissue from Brahman and Angus newborn calves.
The objective of this study was to compare adipocyte morphology and lipogenesis between breed types (Angus vs Brahman) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) from newborn calves. The Brahman calves (n = 7) were born during the fall season, whereas the Angus calves were born in fall (n = 6) or the following spring (n = 4). At parturition, Brahman cows were lighter than fall Angus cows, but were heavier than spring Angus cows (P < .05). Birth weights and perirenal BAT weights were greater in spring-born, but not in fall-born Angus calves, than in Brahman calves (P < .05). Fall-born Angus BAT contained 63% more (P < .05) adipocytes/100 mg tissue and contained a greater proportion (P < .05) of adipocytes with mean diameters of 40 to 50 microm, and fewer adipocytes with diameters of 60 microm or greater, than Brahman BAT. Brahman BAT contained two-to-three times as many beta-receptors as Angus BAT (P < .05), although the dissociation constant (Kd) was not different between breed types. Mitochondria in Brahman BAT were primarily spherical, whereas Angus BAT mitochondria were elongated, and mitochondrial cross-sectional area tended (P = .08) to be greater in Brahman BAT than in Angus BAT. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA concentration (per 10(6) cells) was greater in Brahman BAT than in BAT from fall-born Angus calves. Lipogenesis from acetate was greater in Angus BAT than in Brahman BAT (P < .05), and glucose and palmitate contributed a greater proportion of carbon to lipogenesis in Brahman BAT than in Angus BAT. These differences in lipogenesis between breed types were not observed in s.c. WAT. The WAT from both breed types contained adipocytes with distinct brown adipocyte morphology, suggesting an involution of BAT to WAT in utero. We conclude that differences in UCP gene expression cannot cause the greater peak thermogenesis of Angus calves; however, differences between breed types in lipid metabolism and(or) mitochondrial morphology may contribute to this phenomenon. (+info)
Mechanism of adipose tissue iNOS induction in endotoxemia.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of adipose tissue inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction in endotoxemia. Systemic administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rats for +info)
Effect of calorie restriction on in vivo glucose metabolism by individual tissues in rats.
We evaluated the effects of 8 mo of calorie restriction [CR: 60% of ad libitum (AL) food intake] on glucose uptake by 14 tissues in unanesthetized, adult (12 mo) F344xBN rats. Glucose metabolism was assessed by the 2-[3H]deoxyglucose tracer technique at 1500 or 2100. Despite an approximately 60% decline in insulinemia with CR, plasma 2-[3H]deoxyglucose clearance for CR was greater than for AL at both times. A small, CR-related decrease in glucose metabolic index (R'g) occurred only at 1500 in the spleen and heart, and this decrease was reversed at 2100. In some tissues (cerebellum, lung, kidney, soleus, and diaphragm), R'g was unaffected by diet, regardless of time. In the other tissues (brown fat, 3 white fat pads, epitrochlearis, plantaris, and gastrocnemius), R'g was higher or tended to be higher for CR vs. AL at one or both times. These findings indicate that 8 mo of CR did not cause a continuous reduction in in vivo glucose uptake by any tissue studied, and, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, glucose uptake was at times greater for CR vs. AL rats. (+info)
RVLM and raphe differentially regulate sympathetic outflows to splanchnic and brown adipose tissue.
To determine whether neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (RPa) specifically control the sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue (BAT SNA), thereby regulating adipocyte metabolism and BAT thermogenesis, the responses in BAT SNA to disinhibition of RPa neurons and to disinhibition of neurons in the vasomotor region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were compared with those in splanchnic (Spl) SNA, which primarily regulates visceral vasoconstriction. In urethan-chloralose-anesthetized ventilated rats, both acute hypothermia and microinjection of bicuculline into RPa produced significantly larger increases in BAT SNA (542 and 1,949% of control) than in Spl SNA (19 and 24% of control). The enhanced burst discharge in BAT SNA was not coherent with that in Spl SNA or with the arterial pressure (AP) at any frequency except the central respiratory frequency. Microinjections of bicuculline into RVLM evoked increases in Spl SNA (86% of control) and AP (32 mmHg), but reduced BAT SNA to low, normothermic levels. Microinjections of muscimol into RVLM reduced Spl SNA (-82% of control) and AP (-59 mmHg), but did not prevent the increase in BAT SNA after disinhibition of RPa neurons. These results indicate that the neural networks generating BAT SNA in response to disinhibition of RPa neurons are independent of those generating basal Spl SNA and support a model in which sympathetic outflow to tissues involved in thermoregulation and metabolism is regulated by central pathways, including neurons in RPa, that are distinct from those involved in the sympathetic control of the cardiovascular system. (+info)