Activation of Go-proteins by membrane depolarization traced by in situ photoaffinity labeling of galphao-proteins with [alpha32P]GTP-azidoanilide.
Evidence for depolarization-induced activation of G-proteins in membranes of rat brain synaptoneurosomes has been previously reported (Cohen-Armon, M., and Sokolovsky, M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 2595-2605; Cohen-Armon, M., and Sokolovsky, M. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 9824-9838). In the present work we identify the activated G-proteins as Go-proteins by tracing their depolarization-induced in situ photoaffinity labeling with [alpha32P]GTP-azidoanilide (GTPAA). Labeled GTPAA was introduced into transiently permeabilized rat brain-stem synaptoneurosomes. The resealed synaptoneurosomes, while being UV-irradiated, were depolarized. Relative to synaptoneurosomes at resting potential, the covalent binding of [alpha32P]GTPAA to Galphao1- and Galphao3-proteins, but not to Galphao2- isoforms, was enhanced by 5- to 7-fold in depolarized synaptoneurosomes, thereby implying an accelerated exchange of GDP for [alpha32P]GTPAA. Their depolarization-induced photoaffinity labeling was independent of stimulation of Go-protein-coupled receptors and could be reversed by membrane repolarization, thus excluding induction by transmitters release. It was, however, dependent on depolarization-induced activation of the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC), regardless of Na+ current. The alpha subunit of VGSC was cross-linked and co-immunoprecipitated with Galphao-proteins in depolarized brain-stem and cortical synaptoneurosomes. VGSC alpha subunit most efficiently cross-linked with guanosine 5'-O-2-thiodiphosphate-bound rather than to guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)-bound Galphao-proteins in isolated synaptoneurosomal membranes. These findings support a possible involvement of VGSC in depolarization-induced activation of Go-proteins. (+info)
CD38 signaling in B lymphocytes is controlled by its ectodomain but occurs independently of enzymatically generated ADP-ribose or cyclic ADP-ribose.
CD38 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed by many cell types including lymphocytes. Signaling through CD38 on B lymphocytes can mediate B cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Additionally, coligation of CD38 and the B cell Ag receptor can greatly augment B cell Ag receptor responses. Interestingly, the extracellular domain of CD38 catalyzes the conversion of NAD+ into nicotinamide, ADP-ribose (ADPR), and cyclic ADPR (cADPR). cADPR can induce intracellular calcium release in an inositol trisphosphate-independent manner and has been hypothesized to regulate CD38-mediated signaling. We demonstrate that replacement of the cytoplasmic tail and the transmembrane domains of CD38 did not impair CD38 signaling, coreceptor activity, or enzyme activity. In contrast, independent point mutations in the extracellular domain of CD38 dramatically impaired signal transduction. However, no correlation could be found between CD38-mediated signaling and the capacity of CD38 to catalyze an enzyme reaction and produce cADPR, ADPR, and/or nicotinamide. Instead, we propose that CD38 signaling and coreceptor activity in vitro are regulated by conformational changes induced in the extracellular domain upon ligand/substrate binding, rather than on actual turnover or generation of products. (+info)
Lymphocyte migration through brain endothelial cell monolayers involves signaling through endothelial ICAM-1 via a rho-dependent pathway.
Lymphocyte extravasation into the brain is mediated largely by the Ig superfamily molecule ICAM-1. Several lines of evidence indicate that at the tight vascular barriers of the central nervous system (CNS), endothelial cell (EC) ICAM-1 not only acts as a docking molecule for circulating lymphocytes, but is also involved in transducing signals to the EC. In this paper, we examine the signaling pathways in brain EC following Ab ligation of endothelial ICAM-1, which mimics adhesion of lymphocytes to CNS endothelia. ICAM-1 cross-linking results in a reorganization of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton to form stress fibers and activation of the small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein Rho. ICAM-1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the actin-associated molecule cortactin and ICAM-1-mediated, Ag/IL-2-stimulated T lymphocyte migration through EC monolayers were inhibited following pretreatment of EC with cytochalasin D. Pretreatment of EC with C3 transferase, a specific inhibitor of Rho proteins, significantly inhibited the transmonolayer migration of T lymphocytes, endothelial Rho-GTP loading, and endothelial actin reorganization, without affecting either lymphocyte adhesion to EC or cortactin phosphorylation. These data show that brain vascular EC are actively involved in facilitating T lymphocyte migration through the tight blood-brain barrier of the CNS and that this process involves ICAM-1-stimulated rearrangement of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton and functional EC Rho proteins. (+info)
Evidence of a role for cyclic ADP-ribose in long-term synaptic depression in hippocampus.
Ca2+ released from presynaptic and postsynaptic intracellular stores plays important roles in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, including long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength. At Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, presynaptic ryanodine receptor-gated stores appear to mobilize some of the Ca2+ necessary to induce LTD. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) has recently been proposed as an endogenous activator of ryanodine receptors in sea urchin eggs and several mammalian cell types. Here, we provide evidence that cADPR-mediated signaling pathways play a key role in inducing LTD. We show that biochemical production of cGMP increases cADPR concentration in hippocampal slices in vitro, and that blockade of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, cADPR receptors, or ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ stores each prevent the induction of LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. A lack of effect of postsynaptic infusion of either cADPR antagonist indicates a probable presynaptic site of action. (+info)
The 20S proteasome has been shown to be largely responsible for the degradation of oxidatively modified proteins in the cytoplasm. Nuclear proteins are also subject to oxidation, and the nucleus of mammalian cells contains proteasome. In human beings, tumor cells frequently are subjected to oxidation as a consequence of antitumor chemotherapy, and K562 human myelogenous leukemia cells have a higher nuclear proteasome activity than do nonmalignant cells. Adaptation to oxidative stress appears to be one element in the development of long-term resistance to many chemotherapeutic drugs and the mechanisms of inducible tumor resistance to oxidation are of obvious importance. After hydrogen peroxide treatment of K562 cells, degradation of the model proteasome peptide substrate suc-LLVY-MCA and degradation of oxidized histones in nuclei increases significantly within minutes. Both increased proteolytic susceptibility of the histone substrates (caused by modification by oxidation) and activation of the proteasome enzyme complex occur independently during oxidative stress. This rapid up-regulation of 20S proteasome activity is accompanied by, and depends on, poly-ADP ribosylation of the proteasome, as shown by inhibitor experiments, 14C-ADP ribose incorporation assays, immunoblotting, in vitro reconstitution experiments, and immunoprecipitation of (activated) proteasome with anti-poly-ADP ribose polymerase antibodies. The poly-ADP ribosylation-mediated activated nuclear 20S proteasome is able to remove oxidatively damaged histones more efficiently and therefore is proposed as an oxidant-stimulatable defense or repair system of the nucleus in K562 leukemia cells. (+info)
Rho and Rho kinase mediate thrombin-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and migration.
Aberrant regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration is associated with the pathophysiology of vascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, restenosis, and graft rejection. To elucidate molecular mechanisms that regulate proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, we determined whether signaling through the small G protein Rho is involved in thrombin- and phenylephrine-stimulated proliferation and migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). Thrombin and the thrombin peptide SFLLRNP stimulated DNA synthesis of RASMCs as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Both ligands also increased cell migration as measured by the Boyden chamber method. L-Phenylephrine failed to induce either of these responses but increased inositol phosphate accumulation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in these cells, which indicated that the cells were responsive to alpha1-adrenergic stimulation. The C3 exoenzyme, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho, fully inhibited both thrombin-stimulated proliferation and migration but had no effect on inositol phosphate accumulation. In addition, Y-27632, an inhibitor of the Rho effector p160ROCK/Rho kinase, decreased thrombin-stimulated DNA synthesis and migration. To directly examine Rho activation, Rho-[35S]GTPgammaS binding was measured. The addition of the thrombin peptide SFLLRNP, but not phenylephrine, to RASMC lysates resulted in a significant increase in Rho-[35S]GTPgammaS binding. Thrombin and SFLLRNP, but not phenylephrine, also increased membrane-associated Rho in intact RASMCs, consistent with selective activation of Rho by thrombin. These results indicate that thrombin activates Rho in RASMCs and establish Rho as a critical mediator of thrombin receptor effects on DNA synthesis and cell migration in these cells. (+info)
Identification of critical, conserved vicinal aspartate residues in mammalian and bacterial ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases.
NAD:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferases and ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases catalyze opposing arms of a putative ADP-ribosylation cycle. ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases from mammalian tissues and Rhodospirillum rubrum exhibit three regions of similarity in deduced amino acid sequence. We postulated that amino acids in these consensus regions could be critical for hydrolase function. To test this hypothesis, hydrolase, cloned from rat brain, was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by glutathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Conserved amino acids in each of these regions were altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Asp-60 or Asp-61 with Ala, Gln, or Asn, but not Glu, significantly reduced enzyme activity. The double Asp-60 --> Glu/Asp-61 --> Glu mutant was inactive, as were Asp-60 --> Gln/Asp-61 --> Gln or Asp-60 --> Asn/Asp-61 --> Asn. The catalytically inactive single and double mutants appeared to retain conformation, since they bound ADP-ribose, a substrate analogue and an inhibitor of enzyme activity, with affinity similar to that of the wild-type hydrolase and with the expected stoichiometry of one. Replacing His-65, Arg-139, Asp-285, which are also located in the conserved regions, with alanine did not change specific activity. These data clearly show that the conserved vicinal aspartates 60 and 61 in rat ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase are critical for catalytic activity, but not for high affinity binding of the substrate analogue, ADP-ribose. (+info)
An antagonist of cADP-ribose inhibits arrhythmogenic oscillations of intracellular Ca2+ in heart cells.
Oscillations of Ca2+ in heart cells are a major underlying cause of important cardiac arrhythmias, and it is known that Ca2+-induced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (the sarcoplasmic reticulum) is fundamental to the generation of such oscillations. There is now evidence that cADP-ribose may be an endogenous regulator of the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (the ryanodine receptor), raising the possibility that cADP-ribose may influence arrhythmogenic mechanisms in the heart. 8-Amino-cADP-ribose, an antagonist of cADP-ribose, suppressed oscillatory activity associated with overloading of intracellular Ca2+ stores in cardiac myocytes exposed to high doses of the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol or the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain. The oscillations suppressed by 8-amino-cADP-ribose included intracellular Ca2+ waves, spontaneous action potentials, after-depolarizations, and transient inward currents. Another antagonist of cADP-ribose, 8-bromo-cADP-ribose, was also effective in suppressing isoproterenol-induced oscillatory activity. Furthermore, in the presence of ouabain under conditions in which there was no arrhythmogenesis, exogenous cADP-ribose was found to be capable of triggering spontaneous contractile and electrical activity. Because enzymatic machinery for regulating the cytosolic cADP-ribose concentration is present within the cell, we propose that 8-amino-cADP-ribose and 8-bromo-cADP-ribose suppress cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations by antagonism of endogenous cADP-ribose, which sensitizes the Ca2+ release channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to Ca2+. (+info)