Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi.
1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic. (+info)
Conformational changes generated in GroEL during ATP hydrolysis as seen by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.
Changes in the vibrational spectrum of the chaperonin GroEL in the presence of ADP and ATP have been followed as a function of time using rapid scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The interaction of nucleotides with GroEL was triggered by the photochemical release of the ligands from their corresponding biologically inactive precursors (caged nucleotides; P3-1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl nucleotide). Binding of either ADP or ATP induced the appearance of small differential signals in the amide I band of the protein, sensitive to protein secondary structure, suggesting a subtle and localized change in protein conformation. Moreover, conformational changes associated with ATP hydrolysis were detected that differed markedly from those observed upon nucleotide binding. Both, high-amplitude absorbance changes and difference bands attributable to modifications in the interaction between oppositely charged residues were observed during ATP hydrolysis. Once this process had occurred, the protein relaxed to an ADP-like conformation. Our results suggest that the secondary structure as well as salt bridges of GroEL are modified during ATP hydrolysis, as compared with the ATP and ADP bound protein states. (+info)
Magnesium ion-induced changes in the binding mode of adenylates to chloroplast coupling factor 1.
The effect of Mg2+ on the binding of adenylates to isolated chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) was studied using CD spectrometry and ultrafiltration. At adenylate concentrations smaller than 100 muM, one mole of CF1 binds three moles of ATP (or ADP) regardless of the presence of Mg2+. In the presence of Mg2+, the first two ATP's bind to CF1 independently with the same binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1, then the third ATP binds with a much higher affinity of 10 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the first ATP binds to CF1 with a binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1 then the other two ATP's bind less easily with the same binding constant of 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. The binding mode of ADP to CF1 is quite similar to that of ATP. In the presence of Mg2+, the binding constants of the first two ADP's are both 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, that of the third ADP being 4.0 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the binding constant of the first ADP is 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, the constants of the other two ADP's both being 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. AMP caused a negligible change in CD. (+info)
Mutations of Arg198 in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase cause inhibition of hydrolysis of the phosphoenzyme intermediate formed from inorganic phosphate.
Arg198 of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was substituted with lysine, glutamine, glutamic acid, alanine, and isoleucine by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis was performed with microsomal membranes isolated from COS-1 cells which were transfected with the mutated cDNAs. The rate of dephosphorylation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme was determined by first phosphorylating the Ca2+-ATPase with 32Pi and then diluting the sample with non-radioactive Pi. This rate was reduced substantially in the mutant R198Q, more strongly in the mutants R198A and R1981, and most strongly in the mutant R198E, but to a much lesser extent in R198K. The reduction in the rate of dephosphorylation was consistent with the observed decrease in the turnover rate of the Ca2+-ATPase accompanied by the steady-state accumulation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme formed from ATP. These results indicate that the positive charge and high hydrophilicity of Arg198 are critical for rapid hydrolysis of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme. (+info)
Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase.
Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations. (+info)
Depolarization-evoked Ca2+ release in a non-excitable cell, the rat megakaryocyte.
1. The effect of membrane potential on [Ca2+]i in rat megakaryocytes was studied using simultaneous whole-cell patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence recordings. 2. Depolarization from -75 to 0 mV had no effect on [Ca2+]i in unstimulated cells, but evoked one or more spikes of Ca2+ increase (peak increase: 714 +/- 95 nM) during activation of metabotropic purinoceptors by 1 microM ADP. 3. The depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase was present in Ca2+-free medium and also following removal of Na+. Thus depolarization mobilizes Ca2+ from an intracellular store without a requirement for altered Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity. 4. Intracellular dialysis with heparin blocked the depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase, indicating a role for functional IP3 receptors. 5. Under current clamp, ADP caused the membrane potential to fluctuate between -43 +/- 1 and -76 +/- 1 mV. Under voltage clamp, depolarization from -75 to -45 mV evoked a transient [Ca2+]i increase (398 +/- 91 nM) during exposure to ADP. 6. We conclude that during stimulation of metabotropic purinoceptors, membrane depolarization over the physiological range can stimulate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in the rat megakaryocyte, a non-excitable cell type. This may represent an important mechanism by which electrogenic influences can control patterns of [Ca2+]i increase. (+info)
Platelet aggregation and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly cohort.
BACKGROUND: Platelets are involved in myocardial infarction but evidence of prediction of infarction by measures of platelet function are sparce. METHODS: Platelet aggregation to thrombin and to ADP in platelet rich plasma was recorded for 2176 men aged 49-65 years in the Caerphilly cohort study. RESULTS: Results from 364 men were excluded, 80 of whom had not fasted before venepuncture; most of the others were excluded because antiplatelet medication had been taken shortly before the platelet tests. During the five years following the platelet tests 113 ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events which fulfilled the World Health Organisation criteria were identified--42 fatal and 71 non-fatal. No measure of platelet aggregation was found to be significantly predictive of incident IHD. The possibility that platelet function is predictive for only a limited time after it is characterised, and that prediction falls off with time, was tested. When IHD events are grouped by their time of occurrence after aggregation had been measured, the test results show a gradient suggestive of prediction of early IHD events. Thus, 24% of the men who had an event within 500 days of the test had had a high secondary response to ADP while only 12% of those whose IHD event had been 1000 or more days after the test had shown a high platelet response at baseline. The trend in these proportions is not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet aggregation to thrombin and ADP in platelet rich plasma was recorded in the Caerphilly cohort study. No measure of aggregation was found to be predictive of IHD. (+info)
Binding of the transition state analog MgADP-fluoroaluminate to F1-ATPase.
Escherichia coli F1-ATPase from mutant betaY331W was potently inhibited by fluoroaluminate plus MgADP but not by MgADP alone. beta-Trp-331 fluorescence was used to measure MgADP binding to catalytic sites. Fluoroaluminate induced a very large increase in MgADP binding affinity at catalytic site one, a smaller increase at site two, and no effect at site three. Mutation of either of the critical catalytic site residues beta-Lys-155 or beta-Glu-181 to Gln abolished the effects of fluoroaluminate on MgADP binding. The results indicate that the MgADP-fluoroaluminate complex is a transition state analog and independently demonstrate that residues beta-Lys-155 and (particularly) beta-Glu-181 are important for generation and stabilization of the catalytic transition state. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-inhibited enzyme, with 1% residual steady-state ATPase, showed normal transition state formation as judged by fluoroaluminate-induced MgADP binding affinity changes, consistent with a proposed mechanism by which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide prevents a conformational interaction between catalytic sites but does not affect the catalytic step per se. The fluorescence technique should prove valuable for future transition state studies of F1-ATPase. (+info)