(1/257) Contribution of adenosine to the depression of sympathetically evoked vasoconstriction induced by systemic hypoxia in the rat.

Previous studies have shown that systemic hypoxia evokes vasodilatation in skeletal muscle that is mediated mainly by adenosine acting on A1 receptors, and that the vasoconstrictor effects of sympathetic nerve activity are depressed during hypoxia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of adenosine in this depression. In anaesthetised rats, increases in femoral vascular resistance (FVR) evoked by stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic chain with bursts of impulses at 40 or 20 Hz were greater than those evoked by continuous stimulation at 2 Hz with the same number of impulses (120) over 1 min. All of these responses were substantially reduced by infusion of adenosine or by graded systemic hypoxia (breathing 12, 10 or 8 % O2), increases in FVR evoked by continuous stimulation at 2 Hz being most vulnerable. Blockade of A1 receptors ameliorated the depression caused by adenosine infusion of the increase in FVR evoked by 2 Hz only and did not ameliorate the depression caused by 8 % O2 of increases in FVR evoked by any pattern of sympathetic stimulation. A2A receptor blockade accentuated hypoxia-induced depression of the increase in FVR evoked by burst stimulation at 40 Hz, but had no other effect. Neither A1 nor A2A receptor blockade affected the depression caused by hypoxia (8 % O2) of the FVR increase evoked by noradrenaline infusion. These results indicate that endogenously released adenosine is not responsible for the depression of sympathetically evoked muscle vasoconstriction caused by systemic hypoxia; adenosine may exert a presynaptic facilitatory influence on the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by bursts at high frequency.  (+info)

(2/257) Neuroprotection by caffeine and adenosine A2A receptor blockade of beta-amyloid neurotoxicity.

Adenosine is a neuromodulator in the nervous system and it has recently been observed that pharmacological blockade or gene disruption of adenosine A(2A) receptors confers neuroprotection under different neurotoxic situations in the brain. We now observed that coapplication of either caffeine (1-25 micro M) or the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, 4-(2-[7-amino-2(2-furyl)(1,2,4)triazolo (2,3-a)(1,3,5)triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385, 50 nM), but not the A receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (200 nM), prevented the neuronal cell death caused by exposure of rat cultured cerebellar granule neurons to fragment 25-35 of beta-amyloid protein (25 micro M for 48 h), that by itself caused a near three-fold increase of propidium iodide-labeled cells. This constitutes the first in vitro evidence to suggest that adenosine A(2A) receptors may be the molecular target responsible for the observed beneficial effects of caffeine consumption in the development of Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

(3/257) Synergistic effect of SCH 58261, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, and L-DOPA on the reserpine-induced muscle rigidity in rats.

The aim of the present study was to find out whether a blockade of adenosine A2A receptors by the selective antagonist, SCH 58261, potentiates the attenuating effect of L-DOPA, the well-known antiparkinsonian drug, on parkinsonian-like muscle rigidity in rats. Muscle tone was examined using a combined mechano- and electromyographic method, which simultaneously measured muscle resistance of a rat hindfoot to passive extension and flexion in the ankle joint and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the antagonistic muscles of that joint: gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior. Muscle rigidity was produced by reserpine (5 mg/kg ip) injected in combination with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MT, 250 mg/kg ip). L-DOPA (25 mg/kg ip) or SCH 58261 (0.1 mg/kg ip) administered separately, slightly influenced the reserpine + alpha-MT-induced muscle rigidity. However, only ankle joint extension was affected significantly while the effect on flexion of the rat hindfoot was not significant. Neither L-DOPA nor SCH 58261 given separately modified the reserpine-enhanced tonic or reflex EMG activities in both muscles examined. However, when L-DOPA (25 mg/kg) was given together with SCH 58261 (0.1 mg/kg), a clear synergistic effect was seen on both examined movements and muscles. The present results show that the blockade of adenosine A2A receptors potentiates the antiparkinsonian effect of L-DOPA. Since such an effect was seen in different animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), it seems that co-administration of SCH 58261 may allow for the lowering of the doses of L-DOPA in clinical practice, which indicates a potential therapeutic value of this compound in the treatment of PD.  (+info)

(4/257) Brief, repeated, oxygen-glucose deprivation episodes protect neurotransmission from a longer ischemic episode in the in vitro hippocampus: role of adenosine receptors.

1. Ischemic preconditioning in the brain consists of reducing the sensitivity of neuronal tissue to further, more severe, ischemic insults. We recorded field epsps (fepsps) extracellularly from hippocampal slices to develop a model of in vitro ischemic preconditioning and to evaluate the role of A1, A2A and A3 adenosine receptors in this phenomenon. 2. The application of an ischemic insult, obtained by glucose and oxygen deprivation for 7 min, produced an irreversible depression of synaptic transmission. Ischemic preconditioning was induced by four ischemic insults (2 min each) separated by 13 min of normoxic conditions. After 30 min, an ischemic insult of 7 min was applied. This protocol substantially protected the tissue from the irreversible depression of synaptic activity. 3. The selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 100 nm), completely prevented the protective effect of preconditioning. The selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phe nol (ZM 241385, 100 nm) did not modify the magnitude of fepsp recovery compared to control slices. The selective A3 adenosine receptor antagonists, 3-propyl-6-ethyl-5[ethyl(thio)carbonyl]-2-phenyl-4-propyl-3-pyridinecarboxylate (MRS 1523, 100 nm) significantly improved the recovery of fepsps after 7 min of ischemia. 4. Our results show that in vitro ischemic preconditioning allows CA1 hippocampal neurons to become resistant to prolonged exposure to ischemia. Adenosine, by stimulating A1 receptors, plays a crucial role in eliciting the cell mechanisms underlying preconditioning; A2A receptors are not involved in this phenomenon, whereas A3 receptor activation is harmful to ischemic preconditioning.  (+info)

(5/257) Adenosine-induced IL-6 expression in pituitary folliculostellate cells is mediated via A2b adenosine receptors coupled to PKC and p38 MAPK.

Activation of adenosine receptors in folliculostellate (FS) cells of the pituitary gland leads to the secretion of IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We investigated the action of adenosine A2 receptor agonists on IL-6 and VEGF secretion in two murine FS cell lines (TtT/GF and Tpit/F1), and demonstrated a rank order of potency, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)>2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine>adenosin e, suggesting mediation via the A2b receptor. NECA-mediated IL-6 release was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor 1-[6-((17beta-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-tiene-17-yl)amino)hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-di one, the PI3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin and the PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide 1 and bisindolymaleimide X1 HCl (Ro-32-0432). NECA-mediated IL-6 release was attenuated (<50%) by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK inhibitor 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone, and completely (>95%) inhibited by the p38 MAPK inhibitor 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulphinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole. NECA stimulates p38 MAPK phosphorylation that is inhibited by Ro-32-0432 but not by wortmannin. Dexamethasone inhibits NECA-stimulated IL-6 and VEGF secretion. These findings indicate that adenosine can stimulate IL-6 secretion in FS cells via the A2b receptor coupled principally to PLC/PKC and p38 MAPK; such an action may be important in the modulation of inflammatory response processes in the pituitary gland.  (+info)

(6/257) Possible targeting of G protein coupled receptors to manipulate inflammation in vivo using synthetic and natural ligands.

Cyclic AMP elevating Gs protein coupled receptors were considered for a long time to be immunosuppressive. One of these receptors, adenosine A(2A) receptor, was implicated in a physiological mechanism that down regulates inflammation and protects tissues from excessive immune mediated damage. Targeting of these receptors by selective agonists may lead to better protocols of anti-inflammatory treatments. At the same time inhibiting the Gs protein coupled mediated signalling with antagonists could be explored in studies of approaches to enhance inflammation and tissue damage. Enhancement of targeted tissue damage is highly desirable when it is cancerous tissue, while enhancement of inflammatory events might be desirable in the development of new vaccine adjuvants.  (+info)

(7/257) Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have recently reported that nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists (caffeine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) can partially substitute for the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In the present study, by using more selective compounds, we investigated the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine. The effects of the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 1.3-23.7 mg/kg) and the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; 0.03-0.18 mg/kg) and antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(3-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthin phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3; 1-56 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate either 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The A1 and A2A receptor antagonists (CPT and MSX-3) both produced high levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for either methamphetamine or cocaine and significantly shifted dose-response curves of both psychostimulants to the left. Unexpectedly, the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 also produced drug-appropriate responding (although at lower levels) when substituted for the cocaine-training stimulus, and both CGS 21680 and the A1 receptor agonist CPA significantly shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the left. In contrast, both agonists did not produce significant levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for the methamphetamine-training stimulus and failed to shift the methamphetamine dose-response curve. Therefore, adenosine A1 and A2A receptors appear to play important but differential roles in the modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine and cocaine.  (+info)

(8/257) Antinociceptive effects of novel A2B adenosine receptor antagonists.

Caffeine, an adenosine A1, A2A, and A2B receptor antagonist, is frequently used as an adjuvant analgesic in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids. In this study, we have examined the effects of novel specific adenosine receptor antagonists in an acute animal model of nociception. Several A2B-selective compounds showed antinociceptive effects in the hot-plate test. In contrast, A1- and A2A-selective compounds did not alter pain thresholds, and an A3 adenosine receptor antagonist produced thermal hyperalgesia. Evaluation of psychostimulant effects of these compounds in the open field showed only small effects of some antagonists at high doses. Coadministration of low, subeffective doses of A2B-selective antagonists with a low dose of morphine enhanced the efficacy of morphine. Our results indicate that analgesic effects of caffeine are mediated, at least in part, by A2B adenosine receptors.  (+info)