(1/6258) Analysis of a ubiquitous promoter element in a primitive eukaryote: early evolution of the initiator element.

Typical metazoan core promoter elements, such as TATA boxes and Inr motifs, have yet to be identified in early-evolving eukaryotes, underscoring the extensive divergence of these organisms. Towards the identification of core promoters in protists, we have studied transcription of protein-encoding genes in one of the earliest-diverging lineages of Eukaryota, that represented by the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. A highly conserved element, comprised of a motif similar to a metazoan initiator (Inr) element, surrounds the start site of transcription in all examined T. vaginalis genes. In contrast, a metazoan-like TATA element appears to be absent in trichomonad promoters. We demonstrate that the conserved motif found in T. vaginalis protein-encoding genes is an Inr promoter element. This trichomonad Inr is essential for transcription, responsible for accurate start site selection, and interchangeable between genes, demonstrating its role as a core promoter element. The sequence requirements of the trichomonad Inr are similar to metazoan Inrs and can be replaced by a mammalian Inr. These studies show that the Inr is a ubiquitous, core promoter element for protein-encoding genes in an early-evolving eukaryote. Functional and structural similarities between this protist Inr and the metazoan Inr strongly indicate that the Inr promoter element evolved early in eukaryotic evolution.  (+info)

(2/6258) Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release.  (+info)

(3/6258) Presynaptic action of adenosine on a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive current in the rat carotid body.

1. Plasma adenosine concentration increases during hypoxia to a level that excites carotid body chemoreceptors by an undetermined mechanism. We have examined this further by determining the electrophysiological responses to exogenous adenosine of sinus nerve chemoafferents in vitro and of whole-cell currents in isolated type I cells. 2. Steady-state, single-fibre chemoafferent discharge was increased approximately 5-fold above basal levels by 100 microM adenosine. This adenosine-stimulated discharge was reversibly and increasingly reduced by methoxyverapamil (D600, 100 microM), by application of nickel chloride (Ni2+, 2 mM) and by removal of extracellular Ca2+. These effects strongly suggest a presynaptic, excitatory action of adenosine on type I cells of the carotid body. 3. Adenosine decreased whole-cell outward currents at membrane potentials above -40 mV in isolated type I cells recorded during superfusion with bicarbonate-buffered saline solution at 34-36 C. This effect was reversible and concentration dependent with a maximal effect at 10 microM. 4. The degree of current inhibition induced by 10 microM adenosine was voltage independent (45.39 +/- 2. 55 % (mean +/- s.e.m.) between -40 and +30 mV) and largely ( approximately 75 %), but not entirely, Ca2+ independent. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM) decreased the amplitude of the control outward current by 80.60 +/- 3.67 % and abolished the effect of adenosine. 5. Adenosine was without effect upon currents near the resting membrane potential of approximately -55 mV and did not induce depolarization in current-clamp experiments. 6. We conclude that adenosine acts to inhibit a 4-AP-sensitive current in isolated type I cells of the rat carotid body and suggest that this mechanism contributes to the chemoexcitatory effect of adenosine in the whole carotid body.  (+info)

(4/6258) A comparison of an A1 adenosine receptor agonist (CVT-510) with diltiazem for slowing of AV nodal conduction in guinea-pig.

1. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacological properties (i.e. the AV nodal depressant, vasodilator, and inotropic effects) of two AV nodal blocking agents belonging to different drug classes; a novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, N-(3(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl)-6-aminopurine riboside (CVT-510), and the prototypical calcium channel blocker diltiazem. 2. In the atrial-paced isolated heart, CVT-510 was approximately 5 fold more potent to prolong the stimulus-to-His bundle (S-H interval), a measure of slowing AV nodal conduction (EC50 = 41 nM) than to increase coronary conductance (EC50 = 200 nM). At concentrations of CVT-510 (40 nM) and diltiazem (1 microM) that caused equal prolongation of S-H interval (approximately 10 ms), diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced left ventricular developed pressure (LVP) and markedly increased coronary conductance. CVT-510 shortened atrial (EC50 = 73 nM) but not the ventricular monophasic action potentials (MAP). 3. In atrial-paced anaesthetized guinea-pigs, intravenous infusions of CVT-510 and diltiazem caused nearly equal prolongations of P-R interval. However, diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure. 4. Both CVT-510 and diltiazem prolonged S-H interval, i.e., slowed AV nodal conduction. However, the A1 receptor-selective agonist CVT-510 did so without causing the negative inotropic, vasodilator, and hypotensive effects associated with diltiazem. Because CVT-510 did not affect the ventricular action potential, it is unlikely that this agonist will have a proarrythmic action in ventricular myocardium.  (+info)

(5/6258) A new synthesis of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cyclo-adenosine and -inosine: conformationally-fixed purine nucleosides (nucleosides and nucleotides. XVI).

A versatile method for the synthesis of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine, a conformationally-fixed "anti" type of adenosine, was presented. Irradiation of 2', 3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-deoxy-5'-phenylthioadenosine with 60W Hg vapor lamp afforded 2',3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine in high yield. The use of other 5'-alkylthio derivatives also gave the cycloadenosine, though the yields were rather poor. Deacetonation of the cyclocompound with 0.1N HCl gave 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine. The cycloinosine derivative was similarly prepared. The nmr, mass and CD spectra of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine were given and discussed with the previously reported results.  (+info)

(6/6258) End group of naturally terminated and UV lesion terminated T7 in vitro RNA.

The 3' terminal nucleosides of RNA transcribed in vitro by E. coli RNA polymerase from T7 DNA and UV irradiated TN DNA were determined. The 3' terminal nucleoside of naturally terminated (t1 termination site) RNA cytidine. In the case of RNA terminated at UV lesions, it is cytidine in 0 per cent of the molecules and adenosine in the remaining 30 per cent. Cytidine trialcohols are labile in high concentrations of KOH and at high temperature and appear to convert to uridine.  (+info)

(7/6258) Nucleoside-3'-phosphotriesters as key intermediates for the oligoribonucleotide synthesis. III. An improved preparation of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters, their 1H NMR characterization and new conditions for removal of 2-cyanoethyl group.

An improved procedure for the transformation of 5'-O-monomethoxytrityl-2'-O-acetyl-3'-phosphates of uridine la, inosine ib and 6-N-benzoyladenosine lc into corresponding 3'/2,2,2-trichloroethyl, 2-cyanoethyl/-phosphates iiaic is reported. H NMR characterization of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters is presented. New conditions i.e. anhydrous triethylamine-pyridine treatment have been found for the selective removal of 2-cyanoethyl group from nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters in the presence of neighbouring 2'-O-acetyl one.  (+info)

(8/6258) Electrophysiologic effects of adenosine in patients with supraventricular tachycardia.

BACKGROUND: We correlated the electrophysiologic (EP) effects of adenosine with tachycardia mechanisms in patients with supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Adenosine was administered to 229 patients with SVTs during EP study: atrioventricular (AV) reentry (AVRT; n=59), typical atrioventricular node reentry (AVNRT; n=82), atypical AVNRT (n=13), permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT; n=12), atrial tachycardia (AT; n=53), and inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST; n=10). There was no difference in incidence of tachycardia termination at the AV node in AVRT (85%) versus AVNRT (86%) after adenosine, but patients with AVRT showed increases in the ventriculoatrial (VA) intervals (13%) compared with typical AVNRT (0%), P<0.005. Changes in atrial, AV, or VA intervals after adenosine did not predict the mode of termination of long R-P tachycardias. For patients with AT, there was no correlation with location of the atrial focus and adenosine response. AV block after adenosine was only observed in AT patients (27%) or IST (30%). Patients with IST showed atrial cycle length increases after adenosine (P<0.05) with little change in activation sequence. The incidence of atrial fibrillation after adenosine was higher for those with AVRT (15%) compared with typical AVNRT (0%) P<0.001, or atypical AVNRT (0%) but similar to those with AT (11%) and PJRT (17%). CONCLUSIONS: The EP response to adenosine proved of limited value to identify the location of AT or SVT mechanisms. Features favoring AT were the presence of AV block or marked shortening of atrial cycle length before tachycardia suppression. Atrial fibrillation was more common after adenosine in patients with AVRT, PJRT, or AT. Patients with IST showed increases in cycle length with little change in atrial activation sequence after adenosine.  (+info)