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(1/804) Increased expression of the RIalpha subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A is associated with advanced stage ovarian cancer.

The primary element in the cAMP signal transduction pathway is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Expression of the RIalpha subunit of type I PKA is elevated in a variety of human tumours and cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic importance of RIalpha expression in patients with ovarian cancer. We have evaluated the expression of RIalpha in a panel of human ovarian tumours (n = 40) and five human ovarian cancer cell lines using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The human ovarian cell lines OAW42 and OTN14 express high endogenous levels of RIalpha mRNA and protein (at significantly higher mRNA levels than high tissue expressors, P < 0.05). The ovarian cell line A2780 expresses low endogenous levels of RIalpha mRNA and protein (also at higher mRNA levels than low tissue expressors, P < 0.05). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed no significant difference in RIalpha mRNA expression between different ovarian histological subtypes in this study. No associations were found between RIalpha mRNA expression and differentiation state. RIalpha mRNA expression was significantly associated with tumour stage (P = 0.0036), and this remained significant in univariate analysis (P = 0.0002). A trend emerged between RIalpha mRNA expression levels and overall survival in univariate analysis (P = 0.051), however, by multivariate analysis, stage remained the major determinant of overall survival (P = 0.0001). This study indicates that in ovarian epithelial tumours high RIalpha mRNA expression is associated with advanced stage disease. RIalpha expression may be of predictive value in ovarian cancer and may be associated with dysfunctional signalling pathways in this cancer type.  (+info)

(2/804) Combined inhibin and CA125 assays in the detection of ovarian cancer.

BACKGROUND: The reproductive hormone inhibin has been used as a diagnostic marker of ovarian mucinous and granulosa cell cancers. The aims of this study were to develop a new inhibin immunofluorometric assay (alphaC IFMA) to replace an inhibin RIA as a diagnostic marker of these ovarian cancers and to assess whether the alphaC IFMA in combination with CA125, which detects serous cancers, leads to an improved biochemical diagnosis of all ovarian cancers. METHODS: Serum inhibin concentrations were determined in healthy postmenopausal women (n = 165) and women with ovarian cancers (n = 154), using an inhibin RIA and an alphaC IFMA, which detects inhibin forms containing the alphaC subunit as well as the free alphaC subunit. RESULTS: The alphaC IFMA gave a similar or better discrimination of mucinous (90% vs 71%) and granulosa cell (100% vs 100%) cancers compared with the inhibin RIA. Combination of CA125 and alphaC IFMA values by canonical variate analysis or by multiROC analysis showed that the percentage of all ovarian cancers detected was significantly increased compared with either CA125 or alphaC IFMA alone. CONCLUSIONS: The alphaC IFMA shows a similar or better specificity compared with the RIA, but with increased sensitivity. In combination with CA125, the alphaC IFMA provides an effective dual test for the detection of the majority (90%) of ovarian cancers.  (+info)

(3/804) Clinicopathologic characteristics of mucinous gastric adenocarcinoma.

There has been considerable controversy over the prognosis of mucinous gastric adenocarcinoma (MGC). In this study we analyzed the clinicopathologic differences between MGC and non-mucinous gastric carcinoma (NMGC). In addition, the relationship between mucin content and other clinicopathologic variables, including prognosis in MGC, was also investigated. We reviewed 2118 patients with pathologically-confirmed gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy at the Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, during the period between Jan. 1987 and Dec. 1993. Among them, 130 patients had gastric carcinoma with extracellular mucin (MGC) and 1988 patients had gastric carcinoma without extracellular mucin (NMGC). We placed the MGC patients into two groups according to mucin content: mucin content involving over 50% of the tumor (dominant type, n = 94) and mucin content involving less than 50% of the tumor area (partial type, n = 36). The results were as follows: MGC was more common in males than NMGC. The size of the tumor in MGC (mean 5.3 cm) was larger than that of NMGC (mean 4.4 cm). The patients with MGC had a higher incidence of Borrmann type IV (MGC: 16.1%, NMGC: 9.9%), more frequent serosal invasion (MGC: 75.4%, NMGC: 48.6%), lymph-node metastasis (MGC: 75.4%, NMGC: 50.7%), and peritoneal metastasis (MGC: 10.0%, NMGC: 3.5%) than patients with NMGC. The patients with MGC were more advanced in stage at the time of diagnosis and had a worse overall 10-year survival rate (44.9%) than patients with NMGC (54.7%). However, the 10-year survival rate according to the stage of MGC was similar to that of NMGC. There were no significant differences between the mucin content and other pathologic variables, including prognosis, i.e. similar biologic behavior between dominant type MGC and partial type MGC. In conclusion, we suggest that MGC was more frequently diagnosed in advanced stage than NMGC with a poorer prognosis and that it is reasonable to consider the carcinoma with mucin content involving more than 30% of the tumor area as MGC.  (+info)

(4/804) Tumor characteristics and clinical outcome of tubular and mucinous breast carcinomas.

PURPOSE: To comprehensively characterize the clinical and biologic features of tubular and mucinous carcinomas in a large cohort of patients and to relate this to clinical outcome and management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical and biologic features of 444 patients with tubular and 1,221 patients with mucinous carcinomas were compared with those of 43,587 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with tubular and mucinous carcinomas were compared with those of patients with NOS carcinomas and with age-matched sets from the general population. RESULTS: Tubular and mucinous carcinomas were more likely to occur in older patients, be smaller in size (tubular only), have substantially less nodal involvement, be estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive, have a lower S-phase fraction, be diploid, and be c-erbB-2- and epidermal growth factor receptor-negative compared with NOS carcinomas. Axillary node involvement was a poor prognostic feature in mucinous but not tubular carcinomas. Mucinous carcinomas < or = 1 cm had a < or = 5% incidence of node involvement. The 5-year DFS and OS were 94% and 88% for tubular, 90% and 80% for mucinous, and 80% and 77% for NOS carcinoma, respectively (P < .001 for differences among all three types for both DFS and OS). The 5-year OS of females from the general population age-matched to the patients with tubular and mucinous carcinomas was 89% and 82%, respectively, which is not different from the OS of patients with tubular or mucinous carcinomas. CONCLUSION: The biologic phenotype of tubular and mucinous carcinomas is quite favorable. Consistent with this observation, the survival of patients with tubular and mucinous carcinomas is similar to that of the general population. Systemic adjuvant therapy and node dissection may be avoided in many patients with these special types of carcinoma.  (+info)

(5/804) Overexpression of H-Ryk in mouse fibroblasts confers transforming ability in vitro and in vivo: correlation with up-regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer.

Abnormalities in the function of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been demonstrated to be important in the pathogenesis of cancer. H-Ryk, a new member of the RTK family, is an unusual RTK in that it is catalytically inactive because of amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in the catalytic domain. We show by immunohistochemistry that it is expressed in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels of normal tissues. Evaluation of a panel of 33 primary ovarian tumors (2 benign, 8 borderline, and 23 malignant) was performed. H-Ryk was overexpressed in borderline and malignant ovarian tumors. In serous and clear cell subtypes, there was increased expression in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels. Consistent with this observation, overexpression of H-Ryk in the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 induces anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. This implies that overexpression of the receptor can be transforming and may therefore be significant in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.  (+info)

(6/804) Vascular stroma formation in carcinoma in situ, invasive carcinoma, and metastatic carcinoma of the breast.

The generation of vascular stroma is essential for solid tumor growth and involves stimulatory and inhibiting factors as well as stromal components that regulate functions such as cellular adhesion, migration, and gene expression. In an effort to obtain a more integrated understanding of vascular stroma formation in breast carcinoma, we examined expression of the angiogenic factor vascular permeability factor (VPF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); the VPF/VEGF receptors flt-1 and KDR; thrombospondin-1, which has been reported to inhibit angiogenesis; and the stromal components collagen type I, total fibronectin, ED-A+ fibronectin, versican, and decorin by mRNA in situ hybridization on frozen sections of 113 blocks of breast tissue from 68 patients including 28 sections of breast tissue without malignancy, 18 with in situ carcinomas, 56 with invasive carcinomas, and 8 with metastatic carcinomas. A characteristic expression profile emerged that was remarkably similar in invasive carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, and metastatic carcinoma, with the following characteristics: strong tumor cell expression of VPF/VEGF; strong endothelial cell expression of VPF/VEGF receptors; strong expression of thrombospondin-1 by stromal cells and occasionally by tumor cells; and strong stromal cell expression of collagen type I, total fibronectin, ED-A+ fibronectin, versican, and decorin. The formation of vascular stroma preceded invasion, raising the possibility that tumor cells invade not into normal breast stroma but rather into a richly vascular stroma that they have induced. Similarly, tumor cells at sites of metastasis appear to induce the vascular stroma in which they grow. We conclude that a distinct pattern of mRNA expression characterizes the generation of vascular stroma in breast cancer and that the formation of vascular stroma may play a role not only in growth of the primary tumor but also in invasion and metastasis.  (+info)

(7/804) Paradoxical correlations of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21waf1/cip1 and p27kip1 in metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDIs) p27kip1 and p21waf1/cip1 are key cell cycle-negative regulatory enzymes. The objective of this study was to correlate expression of p27kip1 and p21waf1/cip1 with survival, chemotherapy responsiveness, and expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry was performed with antibodies to p27kip1, p21waf1/cip1, and Ki-67 on samples from 66 patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Interpretation was performed by visual inspection and automated image analysis. Patients who obtained a response to chemotherapy had greater p21waf1/cip1 tumor staining with a mean of 10.0 positive cells/high-powered field, compared with 4.5 positive cells/high-powered field for nonresponders (P = 0.03). A positive Spearman correlation was seen between Ki-67 and p27kip1 (r = 0.48; P = 0.0001), as well as between Ki-67 and p21waf1/cip1 (r = 0.48; P = 0.0001). A trend toward shorter survival was seen in patients with positive specimens (median survival of 10 months for patients with both p27kip1- and p21waf1/cip1-positive specimens, compared with 22 months for patients with neither p27kip1- nor p21waf1/cip1-positive specimens). In contrast to that previously reported in normal colonic mucosa or early-stage colorectal cancer, we observed positive correlations of Ki-67 with both p27kip1 and p21waf1/cip1, a trend toward greater CDI staining indicating worse prognosis, and greater p21waf1/cip1 staining in tumors that were chemosensitive. These findings suggest that in the metastatic setting, CDIs may show altered function, compared with their role in the normal cell cycle.  (+info)

(8/804) Carcinoma of the axillary breast.

Axillary breast is one of the varieties of polymastia which is characterized by the presence of more than 2 breasts. It may cause symptoms during pregnancy, lactation, or in the premenopausal period. Unless there are obvious symptoms of lactation or the assistance of further imaging studies such as mammography and breast ultrasound, the diagnosis is often confused with subcutaneous lipoma. The incidence of axillary breast cancer is low but it should be investigated and treated properly in view of another breast cancer in the embryonic milk-line. In this paper we reviewed 4 cases of axillary breast cancer and documented some articles regarding aberrant breast and carcinoma arising from it. It is suggested that subcutaneous nodules of uncertain origin around the periphery of the breast should be viewed with suspicion and treated properly.  (+info)