Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1), but not ANT2, can dominantly induce apoptosis. Nothing is known, however, about the apoptotic activity of ANT3. We have transfected HeLa cells with the three human ANT isoforms to compare their potential as inducers of apoptosis. Transient overexpression of ANT3 resulted, like ANT1, in apoptosis as shown by an increase in the sub-G1 fraction, annexin V staining, low DeltaPsi(m), and activation of caspases 9 and 3. Moreover, the apoptosis produced by ANT3 was inhibited by bongkrekic acid and by cyclosporin A. The pro-apoptotic activities of the ANT1 and ANT3 isoforms contrast with the lack of apoptotic activity of ANT2. This finding may help to identify the specific factors associated with the pro-apoptotic activities of ANT isoforms. (+info)
Effects of extramitochondrial ADP on permeability transition of mouse liver mitochondria.
Carboxyatractylate (CAT) and atractylate inhibit the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and stimulate the opening of permeability transition pore (PTP). Following pretreatment of mouse liver mitochondria with 5 microM CAT and 75 microM Ca2+, the activity of PTP increased, but addition of 2 mM ADP inhibited the swelling of mitochondria. Extramitochondrial Ca2+ concentration measured with Calcium-Green 5N evidenced that 2 mM ADP did not remarkably decrease the free Ca2+ but the release of Ca2+ from loaded mitochondria was stopped effectively after addition of 2 mM ADP. CAT caused a remarkable decrease of the maximum amount of calcium ions, which can be accumulated by mitochondria. Addition of 2 mM ADP after 5 microM CAT did not change the respiration, but increased the mitochondrial capacity for Ca2+ at more than five times. Bongkrekic acid (BA) had a biphasic effect on PT. In the first minutes 5 microM BA increased the stability of mitochondrial membrane followed by a pronounced opening of PTP too. BA abolished the action about of 1 mM ADP, but was not able to induce swelling of mitochondria in the presence of 2 mM ADP. We conclude that the outer side of inner mitochondrial membrane has a low affinity sensor for ADP, modifying the activity of PTP. The pathophysiological importance of this process could be an endogenous prevention of PT at conditions of energetic depression. (+info)
Dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling in vivo triggers respiratory adaptation in HepG2 cells.
Here, we show that 3 days of mitochondrial uncoupling, induced by low concentrations of dinitrophenol (10 and 50 microM) in cultured human HepG2 cells, triggers cellular metabolic adaptation towards oxidative metabolism. Chronic respiratory uncoupling of HepG2 cells induced an increase in cellular oxygen consumption, oxidative capacity and cytochrome c oxidase activity. This was associated with an upregulation of COXIV and ANT3 gene expression, two nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production and growth rate were unaffected, indicating that metabolic adaptation of HepG2 cells undergoing chronic respiratory uncoupling allows continuous and efficient mitochondrial ATP production without the need to increase glycolytic activity. In contrast, 3 days of dinitrophenol treatment did not change the oxidative capacity of human 143B.TK(-) cells, but it increased glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production. Despite a large increase in glycolytic metabolism, the growth rate of 143B.TK(-) cells was significantly reduced by dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. We propose that chronic respiratory uncoupling may constitute an internal bioenergetic signal, which would initiate a coordinated increase in nuclear respiratory gene expression, which ultimately drives mitochondrial metabolic adaptation within cells. (+info)
Functioning of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria of high-fat diet fed rats.
We proposed that inhibition of mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) by long chain acyl-CoA (LCAC) underlies the mechanism associating obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we test that after long-term exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD): (i) there is no adaptation of the mitochondrial compartment that would hinder such ANT inhibition, and (ii) ANT has significant control of the relevant aspects of oxidative phosphorylation. After 7 weeks, HFD induced a 24+/-6% increase in hepatic LCAC concentration and accumulation of the oxidative stress marker N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine. HFD did not significantly affect mitochondrial copy number, oxygen uptake, membrane potential (Deltapsi), ADP/O ratio, and the content of coenzyme Q(9), cytochromes b and a+a(3). Modular kinetic analysis showed that the kinetics of substrate oxidation, phosphorylation, proton leak, ATP-production and ATP-consumption were not influenced significantly. After HFD-feeding ANT exerted considerable control over oxygen uptake (control coefficient C=0.14) and phosphorylation fluxes (C=0.15), extra- (C=0.23) and intramitochondrial (C=-0.56) ATP/ADP ratios, and Deltapsi (C=-0.11). We conclude that although HFD induces accumulation of LCAC and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, oxidative phosphorylation does not adapt to these metabolic challenges. Furthermore, ANT retains control of fluxes and intermediates, making inhibition of this enzyme a more probable link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. (+info)
Adenine nucleotide (ADP/ATP) translocase 3 participates in the tumor necrosis factor induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells.
Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is believed to be a component or a regulatory component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP), which controls mitochondrial permeability transition during apoptosis. However, the role of ANT in apoptosis is still uncertain, because hepatocytes isolated from ANT knockout and wild-type mice are equally sensitive to TNF- and Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screen for genes required for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells using retrovirus insertion-mediated random mutagenesis, we discovered that the ANT3 gene is involved in TNF-alpha-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. We further found that ANT3 is selectively required for TNF- and oxidative stress-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells, but it is dispensable for cell death induced by several other inducers. This data supplements previous data obtained from ANT knockout studies, indicating that ANT is involved in some apoptotic processes. We found that the resistance to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis observed in ANT3 mutant (ANT3(mut)) cells is associated with a deficiency in the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. It is not related to intracellular ATP levels or survival pathways, supporting a previous model in which ANT regulates mtPTP. Our study provides genetic evidence supporting a role of ANT in apoptosis and suggests that the involvement of ANT in cell death is cell type- and stimulus-dependent. (+info)
Down-regulation of adenine nucleotide translocase 3 and its role in camptothecin-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma QGY7703 cells.