(1/69) Induction of an unregulated channel by mutations in adenine nucleotide translocase suggests an explanation for human ophthalmoplegia.

Adenine nucleotide translocase (Ant) is primarily involved in ATP/ADP exchange across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Recently, the A114P missense mutation in the human Ant1 protein was found to be associated with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO). Ant1(A114P) was proposed to cause an imbalance of the mitochondrial deoxynucleotide pool that subsequently affects the accuracy of mtDNA replication, thereby leading to accumulation of mutant mtDNA. In the present study, it has been shown that the A128P mutation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aac2 protein, equivalent to A114P in human Ant1p, does not always affect respiratory growth. However, expression of aac2(A128P) results in depolarization, structural swelling and disintegration of mitochondria, and ultimately an arrest of cell growth in a dominant-negative manner. The aac2(A128P) mutation likely induces an unregulated channel allowing free passage of solutes across the inner membrane. These data raise the possibility that the formation of an unregulated channel, rather than a defect in ATP/ADP exchange, is a direct pathogenic factor in human adPEO. The accumulation of mtDNA mutations might be a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction.  (+info)

(2/69) Skeletal muscle mitochondrial free-fatty-acid content and membrane potential sensitivity in different thyroid states: involvement of uncoupling protein-3 and adenine nucleotide translocase.

The effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on mitochondrial efficiency could be related to an increase in the concentrations of some proteins, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs). Free fatty acids (FFA) seem to be a cofactor essential for the uncoupling activity of UCP3. In this paper, we report that the hypothyroidism-hyperthyroidism transition is accompanied by increases: (i) in the endogenous levels of mitochondrial FFA and (ii) in the sensitivity to FFA shown by the mitochondrial respiration rate and membrane potential, which correlated with the level of UCP3 protein. The level of the mRNA for adenine-nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT) was not affected by the thyroid state, while the ANT contribution to FFA-induced changes in mitochondrial uncoupling was low in the hypothyroid and euthyroid states but became more relevant in the hyperthyroid state at the highest concentration of FFA.  (+info)

(3/69) Hypothermia preserves myocardial function and mitochondrial protein gene expression during hypoxia.

Hypothermia before and/or during no-flow ischemia promotes cardiac functional recovery and maintains mRNA expression for stress proteins and mitochondrial membrane proteins (MMP) during reperfusion. Adaptation and protection may occur through cold-induced change in anaerobic metabolism. Accordingly, the principal objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that hypothermia preserves myocardial function during hypoxia and reoxygenation. Hypoxic conditions in these experiments were created by reducing O2 concentration in perfusate, thereby maintaining or elevating coronary flow (CF). Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were subjected to perfusate (Po2 = 38 mmHg) with glucose (11.5 mM) and perfusion pressure (90 mmHg). The control (C) group was at 37 degrees C for 30 min before and 45 min during hypoxia, whereas the hypothermia (H) group was at 29.5 degrees C for 30 min before and 45 min during hypoxia. Reoxygenation occurred at 37 degrees C for 45 min for both groups. CF increased during hypoxia. The H group markedly improved functional recovery during reoxygenation, including left ventricular developed pressure (DP), the product of DP and heart rate, dP/dtmax, and O2 consumption (MVo2) (P < 0.05 vs. control). MVo2 decreased during hypothermia. Lactate and CO2 gradients across the coronary bed were the same in C and H groups during hypoxia, implying similar anaerobic metabolic rates. Hypothermia preserved MMP betaF1-ATPase mRNA levels but did not alter adenine nucleotide translocator-1 or heat shock protein-70 mRNA levels. In conclusion, hypothermia preserves cardiac function after hypoxia in the hypoxic high-CF model. Thus hypothermic protection does not occur exclusively through cold-induced alterations in anaerobic metabolism.  (+info)

(4/69) Serotonin is a novel survival factor of cardiomyocytes: mitochondria as a target of 5-HT2B receptor signaling.

Identification of factors regulating cardiomyocyte survival and growth is important to understand the pathogenesis of congenital heart diseases. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of cardiac functions triggered by serotonin. The link between signaling circuitry of external stimuli and the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery is of wide interest in cardiac diseases. Using cultured cardiomyocytes and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2B-receptor knockout mice as an animal model of dilated cardiomyopathy, for the first time we show that serotonin via the Gq-coupled 5-HT2B-receptor protect cardiomyocytes against serum deprivation-induced apoptosis as manifested by DNA fragmentation, nuclear chromatin condensation, and TUNEL labeling. Serotonin prevents cytochrome c release and caspase-9 and -3 activation after serum deprivation via cross-talks between phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling pathways. Serotonin binding to 5-HT2B-receptor activates ERK kinases to inhibit Bax expression induced by serum deprivation. Serotonin via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt can activate NF-kappaB that is required for the regulation of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT-1). Parallel to these observations, ultrastructural analysis in the 5-HT2B-receptor knockout mice heart revealed pronounced mitochondrial defects in addition to altered mitochondrial enzyme activities (cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase) and ANT-1 and Bax expressions. These findings identify 5-HT as a novel survival factor targeting mitochondria in cardiomyocytes.  (+info)

(5/69) A peptide trivalent arsenical inhibits tumor angiogenesis by perturbing mitochondrial function in angiogenic endothelial cells.

Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell and their disruption leads to cell death. We have used a peptide trivalent arsenical, 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO), to inactivate the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) that exchanges matrix ATP for cytosolic ADP across the inner mitochondrial membrane and is the key component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). GSAO triggered Ca(2+)-dependent MPTP opening by crosslinking Cys(160) and Cys(257) of ANT. GSAO treatment caused a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide levels, ATP depletion, mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis in proliferating, but not growth-quiescent, endothelial cells. Endothelial cell proliferation drives new blood vessel formation, or angiogenesis. GSAO inhibited angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and in solid tumors in mice. Consequently, GSAO inhibited tumor growth in mice with no apparent toxicity at efficacious doses.  (+info)

(6/69) Increased adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in reactive astrocytes facilitates glutamate transport.

A hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) pathology is reactive astrocyte production of the chronic glial scar that is inhibitory to neuronal regeneration. The reactive astrocyte response is complex; these cells also produce neurotrophic factors and are responsible for removal of extracellular glutamate, the excitatory neurotransmitter that rises to neurotoxic levels in injury and disease. To identify genes expressed by reactive astrocytes, we employed an in vivo model of the glial scar and differential display PCR and found an increase in the level of Ant1, a mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchanger that facilitates the flux of ATP out of the mitochondria. Ant1 expression in reactive astrocytes is regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1, a pluripotent CNS injury-induced cytokine. The significance of increased Ant1 is evident from the observation that glutamate uptake is significantly decreased in astrocytes from Ant1 null mutant mice while a specific Ant inhibitor reduces glutamate uptake in wild-type astrocytes. Thus, the astrocytic response to CNS injury includes an apparent increase in energy mobilization capacity by Ant1 that contributes to neuroprotective, energy-dependent glutamate uptake.  (+info)

(7/69) Cholesterol impairs the adenine nucleotide translocator-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition through altered membrane fluidity.

Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) has been proposed to play a key role in cell death. Downstream MPT events include the release of apoptogenic factors that sets in motion the mitochondrial apoptosome leading to caspase activation. The current work examined the regulation of MPT by membrane fluidity modulated upon cholesterol enrichment. Mitochondria enriched in cholesterol displayed increased microviscosity resulting in impaired MPT induced by atractyloside, a c-conformation stabilizing ligand of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). This effect was dependent on the dose of cholesterol loaded and reversed upon the fluidization of mitochondria by the fatty acid derivative A2C. Mitoplasts derived from cholesterol-enriched mitochondria responded to atractyloside in a similar fashion as intact mitochondria, indicating that a significant amount of cholesterol is still found in the inner membrane. The effects of cholesterol on MPT induced by atractyloside were mirrored by the release of intermembrane proteins, cytochrome c, Smac/Diablo, and apoptosis inducing factor. However, cholesterol loading did not affect the uptake rate of adenine nucleotide hence dissociating the function of ANT as a MPT-mediated protein from its adenine nucleotide exchange function. Thus, these findings indicate that the ability of atractyloside to induce MPT via ANT requires an appropriate membrane fluidity range.  (+info)

(8/69) Protein components of mitochondrial DNA nucleoids in higher eukaryotes.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is not packaged in nucleosomal particles, but has been reported to associate with the mitochondrial inner membrane. Gentle lysis of Xenopus oocyte mitochondria with nonionic detergent liberates a nucleoprotein complex containing mtDNA associated with a previously characterized DNA binding partner, mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), as well as a series of inner membrane proteins identified by sequencing. More extensive detergent treatment stripped most of these proteins from the DNA, leaving a limited number of proteins in a nucleoid core. Sequencing of the major proteins retained in association with mtDNA revealed the expected mtDNA binding proteins, mtTFA and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB), as well as four proteins not previously reported to associate with mtDNA. These include adenine nucleotide translocator 1, the lipoyl-containing E2 subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase and prohibitin 2. The association of several of these proteins with mtTFA-containing mtDNA nucleoids was confirmed by immunoprecipitation.  (+info)