Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins.
Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis. (+info)
Altered trafficking of lysosomal proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome due to mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Here, we report the identification of two HPS patients with mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. The patients' fibroblasts exhibit drastically reduced levels of AP-3 due to enhanced degradation of mutant beta 3A. The AP-3 deficiency results in increased surface expression of the lysosomal membrane proteins CD63, lamp-1, and lamp-2, but not of nonlysosomal proteins. These differential effects are consistent with the preferential interaction of the AP-3 mu 3A subunit with tyrosine-based signals involved in lysosomal targeting. Our results suggest that AP-3 functions in protein sorting to lysosomes and provide an example of a human disease in which altered trafficking of integral membrane proteins is due to mutations in a component of the sorting machinery. (+info)
Phosphotyrosine binding domains of Shc and insulin receptor substrate 1 recognize the NPXpY motif in a thermodynamically distinct manner.
Phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains of the adaptor protein Shc and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) interact with a distinct set of activated and tyrosine-phosphorylated cytokine and growth factor receptors and play important roles in mediating mitogenic signal transduction. By using the technique of isothermal titration calorimetry, we have studied the thermodynamics of binding of the Shc and IRS-1 PTB domains to tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY-containing peptides derived from known receptor binding sites. The results showed that relative contributions of enthalpy and entropy to the free energy of binding are dependent on specific phosphopeptides. Binding of the Shc PTB domain to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from TrkA, epidermal growth factor, ErbB3, and insulin receptors is achieved via an overall entropy-driven reaction. On the other hand, recognition of the phosphopeptides of insulin and interleukin-4 receptors by the IRS-1 PTB domain is predominantly an enthalpy-driven process. Mutagenesis and amino acid substitution experiments showed that in addition to the tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY motif, the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 prefer a large hydrophobic residue at pY-5 and a small hydrophobic residue at pY-1, respectively (where pY is phosphotyrosine). These results agree with the calculated solvent accessibility of these two key peptide residues in the PTB domain/peptide structures and support the notion that the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 employ functionally distinct mechanisms to recognize tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors. (+info)
Identification of a novel domain shared by putative components of the endocytic and cytoskeletal machinery.
We have identified a approximately 140 amino acid domain that is shared by a variety of proteins in budding and fission yeast, nematode, rat, mouse, frog, oat, and man. Typically, this domain is located within 20 residues of the N-terminus of the various proteins. The percent identity among the domains in the 12 proteins ranges from 42 to 93%, with 16 absolutely conserved residues: N-x(11-13)-V-x2-A-T-x(34-36)-R-x(7-8)-W-R-x3-K-x12-G-x-E-x15 -L-x11-12-D-x-G-R-x11-D-x7-R. Even though these proteins share little beyond their segment of homology, data are emerging that several of the proteins are involved in endocytosis and or regulation of cytoskeletal organization. We have named this protein segment the ENTH domain, for Epsin N-terminal Homology domain, and hypothesize that it is a candidate for binding specific ligands and/or enzymatic activity in the cell. (+info)
Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38.
Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis. (+info)
The EH and SH3 domain Ese proteins regulate endocytosis by linking to dynamin and Eps15.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a multistep process which requires interaction between a number of conserved proteins. We have cloned two mammalian genes which code for a number of endocytic adaptor proteins. Two of these proteins, termed Ese1 and Ese2, contain two N-terminal EH domains, a central coiled-coil domain and five C-terminal SH3 domains. Ese1 is constitutively associated with Eps15 proteins to form a complex with at least 14 protein-protein interaction surfaces. Yeast two-hybrid assays have revealed that Ese1 EH and SH3 domains bind epsin family proteins and dynamin, respectively. Overexpression of Ese1 is sufficient to block clathrin-mediated endocytosis in cultured cells, presumably through disruption of higher order protein complexes, which are assembled on the endogenous Ese1-Eps15 scaffold. The Ese1-Eps15 scaffold therefore links dynamin, epsin and other endocytic pathway components. (+info)
AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors.
Here we report the identification and characterization of AP-4, a novel protein complex related to the heterotetrameric AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 adaptors that mediate protein sorting in the endocytic and late secretory pathways. The key to the identification of this complex was the cloning and sequencing of two widely expressed, mammalian cDNAs encoding new homologs of the adaptor beta and sigma subunits named beta4 and sigma4, respectively. An antibody to beta4 recognized in human cells an approximately 83-kDa polypeptide that exists in both soluble and membrane-associated forms. Gel filtration, sedimentation velocity, and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that beta4 is a component of a multisubunit complex (AP-4) that also contains the sigma4 polypeptide and two additional adaptor subunit homologs named mu4 (mu-ARP2) and epsilon. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that AP-4 is associated with the trans-Golgi network or an adjacent structure and that this association is sensitive to the drug brefeldin A. We propose that, like the related AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 complexes, AP-4 plays a role in signal-mediated trafficking of integral membrane proteins in mammalian cells. (+info)
High-affinity binding of the AP-1 adaptor complex to trans-golgi network membranes devoid of mannose 6-phosphate receptors.
The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) initiates clathrin-coat assembly at the trans-Goli network (TGN) by generating high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the AP-1 adaptor complex. Both transmembrane proteins, which are sorted into the assembling coated bud, and novel docking proteins have been suggested to be partners with GTP-bound ARF in generating the AP-1-docking sites. The best characterized, and probably the major transmembrane molecules sorted into the clathrin-coated vesicles that form on the TGN, are the mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs). Here, we have examined the role of the MPRs in the AP-1 recruitment process by comparing fibroblasts derived from embryos of either normal or MPR-negative animals. Despite major alterations to the lysosome compartment in the MPR-deficient cells, the steady-state distribution of AP-1 at the TGN is comparable to that of normal cells. Golgi-enriched membranes prepared from the receptor-negative cells also display an apparently normal capacity to recruit AP-1 in vitro in the presence of ARF and either GTP or GTPgammaS. The AP-1 adaptor is recruited specifically onto the TGN and not onto the numerous abnormal membrane elements that accumulate within the MPR-negative fibroblasts. AP-1 bound to TGN membranes from either normal or MPR-negative fibroblasts is fully resistant to chemical extraction with 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 7, indicating that the adaptor binds to both membrane types with high affinity. The only difference we do note between the Golgi prepared from the MPR-deficient cells and the normal cells is that AP-1 recruited onto the receptor-lacking membranes in the presence of ARF1.GTP is consistently more resistant to extraction with Tris. Because sensitivity to Tris extraction correlates well with nucleotide hydrolysis, this finding might suggest a possible link between MPR sorting and ARF GAP regulation. We conclude that the MPRs are not essential determinants in the initial steps of AP-1 binding to the TGN but, instead, they may play a regulatory role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation by affecting ARF.GTP hydrolysis. (+info)