Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38.
Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis. (+info)
Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis.
Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner. (+info)
Mu1B, a novel adaptor medium chain expressed in polarized epithelial cells.
The apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells contain distinct sets of integral membrane proteins. Biosynthetic targeting of proteins to the basolateral plasma membrane is mediated by cytosolic tail determinants, many of which resemble signals involved in the rapid endocytosis or lysosomal targeting. Since these signals are recognized by adaptor proteins, we hypothesized that there could be epithelial-specific adaptors involved in polarized sorting. Here, we report the identification of a novel member of the adaptor medium chain family, named mu1B, which is closely related to the previously described mu1A (79% amino acid sequence identity). Northern blotting and in situ hybridization analyses reveal the specific expression of mu1B mRNA in a subset of polarized epithelial and exocrine cells. Yeast two-hybrid analyses show that mu1B is capable of interacting with generic tyrosine-based sorting signals. These observations suggest that mu1B may be involved in protein sorting events specific to polarized cells. (+info)
A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells.
Although polarized epithelial cells are well known to maintain distinct apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, the mechanisms responsible for targeting membrane proteins to the apical or basolateral surfaces have remained elusive. We have identified a novel form of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex that contains as one of its subunits mu1B, an epithelial cell-specific homolog of the ubiquitously expressed mu1A. LLC-PK1 kidney epithelial cells do not express mu1B and missort many basolateral proteins to the apical surface. Stable expression of mu1B selectively restored basolateral targeting, improved the overall organization of LLC-PK1 monolayers, and had no effect on apical targeting. We conclude that basolateral sorting is mediated by an epithelial cell-specific version of the AP-1 complex containing mu1B. (+info)
mu1A-adaptin-deficient mice: lethality, loss of AP-1 binding and rerouting of mannose 6-phosphate receptors.
The heterotetrameric AP-1 complex is involved in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and interacts with sorting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of cargo molecules. Targeted disruption of the mouse mu1A-adaptin gene causes embryonic lethality at day 13.5. In cells deficient in micro1A-adaptin the remaining AP-1 adaptins do not bind to the TGN. Polarized epithelial cells are the only cells of micro1A-adaptin-deficient embryos that show gamma-adaptin binding to membranes, indicating the formation of an epithelial specific AP-1B complex and demonstrating the absence of additional mu1A homologs. Mannose 6-phosphate receptors are cargo molecules that exit the TGN via AP-1-clathrin-coated vesicles. The steady-state distribution of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors MPR46 and MPR300 in mu1A-deficient cells is shifted to endosomes at the expense of the TGN. MPR46 fails to recycle back from the endosome to the TGN, indicating that AP-1 is required for retrograde endosome to TGN transport of the receptor. (+info)
Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting motif.
HIV-1 Nef interacts with cellular adaptor protein (AP) complexes and their medium (mu) subunits. However, the role of the dileucine-based sorting motif within Nef in these interactions has been incompletely characterized. Here, yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that HIV-1 Nef interacted not only with the mu subunits of AP-1 and AP-2, but also with that of AP-3. The interactions with mu1 and mu3 were markedly stronger than the interaction with mu2. Leucine residues of the sorting motif were required for the interactions with mu3 and mu2 and contributed to the interaction with mu1. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Nef, AP-1, and AP-3 (but not AP-2) were concentrated in a juxtanuclear region near the cell center, potentially facilitating interaction between Nef and the mu1 and mu3 subunits. However, leucine residues of the sorting motif were not required for this subcellular localization of Nef. These data suggest that the dileucine motif, required for optimal viral replication, functions through interactions with a variety of AP complexes, including AP-3, potentially by recruiting adaptor complexes to subcellular locations specified by additional determinants in the Nef protein. (+info)
RLIP76, an effector of the GTPase Ral, interacts with the AP2 complex: involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis.
RLIP76 is a modular protein that was identified as a putative effector of Ral, a GTPase activated during Ras signaling. To explore further the contribution of the Ral-RLIP76 pathway to Ras signaling, we have looked for partners of RLIP76. Mu2, the medium chain of the AP2 complex is shown to interact with RLIP76. We show also that in vivo endogenous AP2 and RLIP76 form a complex and that this in vivo interaction is independent of cells being stimulated by a growth factor. Furthermore, RLIP76 differentiates AP2 from AP1 in vivo as RLIP76 differentiates mu2 from mu1 in vitro and in two hybrid assays. We show that activated Ral interferes with both tranferrin receptor endocytosis and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells. We propose a model where the Ral-RLIP76 pathway connects signal transduction and endocytosis through interaction on one hand between the Ras-Ral pathway and RLIP, on the other hand between RLIP and proteins belonging to the endocytotic machinery. (+info)
Distinct and redundant functions of mu1 medium chains of the AP-1 clathrin-associated protein complex in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, there exist two micro1 medium chains of the AP-1 clathrin-associated protein complex. Mutations of unc-101, the gene that encodes one of the micro1 chains, cause pleiotropic effects (). In this report, we identified and analyzed the second mu1 chain gene, apm-1. Unlike the mammalian homologs, the two medium chains are expressed ubiquitously throughout development. RNA interference (RNAi) experiments with apm-1 showed that apm-1 and unc-101 were redundant in embryogenesis and in vulval development. Consistent with this, a hybrid protein containing APM-1, when overexpressed, rescued the phenotype of an unc-101 mutant. However, single disruptions of apm-1 or unc-101 have distinct phenotypes, indicating that the two medium chains may have distinct functions. RNAi of any one of the small or large chains of AP-1 complex (sigma1, beta1, or gamma) showed a phenotype identical to that caused by the simultaneous disruption of unc-101 and apm-1, but not that by single disruption of either gene. This suggests that the two medium chains may share large and small chains in the AP-1 complexes. Thus, apm-1 and unc-101 encode two highly related micro1 chains that share redundant and distinct functions within AP-1 clathrin-associated protein complexes of the same tissue. (+info)