Early embryonic death of mice deficient in gamma-adaptin.
Intracellular protein transport and sorting by vesicles in the secretory and endocytic pathways requires the formation of a protein coat on the membrane. The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) promotes the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the trans-Golgi network. AP-1 interacts with various sorting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of cargo molecules, thus indicating a function in protein sorting. We generated mutants of the gamma-adaptin subunit of AP-1 in mice to investigate its role in post-Golgi vesicle transport and sorting processes. gamma-Adaptin-deficient embryos develop until day 3.5 post coitus and die during the prenidation period, revealing that AP-1 is essential for viability. In heterozygous mice the amount of AP-1 complexes is reduced to half of controls. Free beta1- or micro1 chains were not detectable, indicating that they are unstable unless they are part of AP-1 complexes. Heterozygous mice weigh less then their wild-type littermates and show impaired T cell development. (+info)
Inhibition of secretion by 1,3-Cyclohexanebis(methylamine), a dibasic compound that interferes with coatomer function.
We noted previously that certain aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibit the binding of coatomer to Golgi membranes in vitro. The inhibition is mediated in part by two primary amino groups present at the 1 and 3 positions of the 2-deoxystreptamine moiety of the antibiotics. These two amines appear to mimic the epsilon-amino groups present in the two lysine residues of the KKXX motif that is known to bind coatomer. Here we report the effects of 1, 3-cyclohexanebis(methylamine) (CBM) on secretion in vivo, a compound chosen for study because it contains primary amino groups that resemble those in 2-deoxystreptamine and it should penetrate lipid bilayers more readily than antibiotics. CBM inhibited coatomer binding to Golgi membranes in vitro and in vivo and inhibited secretion by intact cells. Despite depressed binding of coatomer in vivo, the Golgi complex retained its characteristic perinuclear location in the presence of CBM and did not fuse with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Transport from the ER to the Golgi was also not blocked by CBM. These data suggest that a full complement of coat protein I (COPI) on membranes is not critical for maintenance of Golgi integrity or for traffic from the ER to the Golgi but is necessary for transport through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. (+info)
Two compartments for insulin-stimulated exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes defined by endogenous ACRP30 and GLUT4.
Insulin stimulates adipose cells both to secrete proteins and to translocate the GLUT4 glucose transporter from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that whereas insulin stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes has no effect on secretion of the alpha3 chain of type VI collagen, secretion of the protein hormone adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kD (ACRP30) is markedly enhanced. Like GLUT4, regulated exocytosis of ACRP30 appears to require phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity, since insulin-stimulated ACRP30 secretion is blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors of this enzyme. Thus, 3T3-L1 adipocytes possess a regulated secretory compartment containing ACRP30. Whether GLUT4 recycles to such a compartment has been controversial. We present deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy data demonstrating that the subcellular distributions of ACRP30 and GLUT4 are distinct and nonoverlapping; in contrast, those of GLUT4 and the transferrin receptor overlap. Together with supporting evidence that GLUT4 does not recycle to a secretory compartment via the trans-Golgi network, we conclude that there are at least two compartments that undergo insulin-stimulated exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: one for ACRP30 secretion and one for GLUT4 translocation. (+info)
Gamma-synergin: an EH domain-containing protein that interacts with gamma-adaptin.
The AP-1 adaptor complex is associated with the TGN, where it links selected membrane proteins to the clathrin lattice, enabling these proteins to be concentrated in clathrin-coated vesicles. To identify other proteins that participate in the clathrin-coated vesicle cycle at the TGN, we have carried out a yeast two- hybrid library screen using the gamma-adaptin subunit of the AP-1 complex as bait. Two novel, ubiquitously expressed proteins were found: p34, which interacts with both gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin, and gamma-synergin, an alternatively spliced protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 110-190 kD, which only interacts with gamma-adaptin. gamma-Synergin is associated with AP-1 both in the cytosol and on TGN membranes, and it is strongly enriched in clathrin-coated vesicles. It binds directly to the ear domain of gamma-adaptin and it contains an Eps15 homology (EH) domain, although the EH domain is not part of the gamma-adaptin binding site. In cells expressing alpha-adaptin with the gamma-adaptin ear, a construct that goes mainly to the plasma membrane, much of the gamma-synergin is also rerouted to the plasma membrane, indicating that it follows AP-1 onto membranes rather than leading it there. The presence of an EH domain suggests that gamma-synergin links the AP-1 complex to another protein or proteins. (+info)
Vear, a novel Golgi-associated protein with VHS and gamma-adaptin "ear" domains.
The molecular basis of the selectivity and the details of the vesicle formation in endocytic and secretory pathways are still poorly known and most probably involve as yet unidentified components. Here we describe the cloning, expression, and tissue and cell distribution of a novel protein of 67 kDa (called Vear) that bears homology to several endocytosis-associated proteins in that it has a VHS domain in its N terminus. It is also similar to gamma-adaptin, the heavy subunit of AP-1, in having in its C terminus a typical "ear" domain. In immunofluorescence microscopy, Vear was seen in the Golgi complex as judged by a typical distribution pattern, a distinct colocalization with the Golgi marker gamma-adaptin, and a sensitivity to treatment of cells with brefeldin A. In cell fractionation, Vear partitioned with the post-nuclear membrane fraction. In transfection experiments, hemagglutinin-tagged full-length Vear and truncated Vear lacking the VHS domain assembled on and caused compaction of the Golgi complex. Golgi association without compaction was seen with the ear domain of Vear, whereas the VHS domain alone showed a diffuse membrane- and vesicle-associated distribution. The Golgi association and the bipartite structure along with the differential targeting of its domains suggest that Vear is involved in heterotypic vesicle/suborganelle interactions associated with the Golgi complex. Tissue-specific function of Vear is suggested by its high level of expression in kidney, muscle, and heart. (+info)
A family of proteins with gamma-adaptin and VHS domains that facilitate trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the vacuole/lysosome.
We have cloned and characterized members of a novel family of proteins, the GGAs. These proteins contain an NH(2)-terminal VHS domain, one or two coiled-coil domains, and a COOH-terminal domain homologous to the COOH-terminal "ear" domain of gamma-adaptin. However, unlike gamma-adaptin, the GGAs are not associated with clathrin-coated vesicles or with any of the components of the AP-1 complex. GGA1 and GGA2 are also not associated with each other, although they colocalize on perinuclear membranes. Immunogold EM shows that these membranes correspond to trans elements of the Golgi stack and the TGN. GST pulldown experiments indicate that the GGA COOH-terminal domains bind to a subset of the proteins that bind to the gamma-adaptin COOH-terminal domain. In yeast there are two GGA genes. Deleting both of these genes results in missorting of the vacuolar enzyme carboxypeptidase Y, and the cells also have a defective vacuolar morphology phenotype. These results indicate that the function of the GGAs is to facilitate the trafficking of proteins between the TGN and the vacuole, or its mammalian equivalent, the lysosome. (+info)
GGAs: a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex.
Formation of intracellular transport intermediates and selection of cargo molecules are mediated by protein coats associated with the cytosolic face of membranes. Here, we describe a novel family of ubiquitous coat proteins termed GGAs, which includes three members in humans and two in yeast. GGAs have a modular structure consisting of a VHS domain, a region of homology termed GAT, a linker segment, and a region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed colocalization of GGAs with Golgi markers, whereas immunoelectron microscopy of GGA3 revealed its presence on coated vesicles and buds in the area of the TGN. Treatment with brefeldin A or overexpression of dominant-negative ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) caused dissociation of GGAs from membranes. The GAT region of GGA3 was found to: target a reporter protein to the Golgi complex; induce dissociation from membranes of ARF-regulated coats such as AP-1, AP-3, AP-4, and COPI upon overexpression; and interact with activated ARF1. Disruption of both GGA genes in yeast resulted in impaired trafficking of carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole. These observations suggest that GGAs are components of ARF-regulated coats that mediate protein trafficking at the TGN. (+info)
Distribution and function of AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes in polarized epithelial cells.
Expression of the epithelial cell-specific heterotetrameric adaptor complex AP-1B is required for the polarized distribution of many membrane proteins to the basolateral surface of LLC-PK1 kidney cells. AP-1B is distinguished from the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A by exchange of its single 50-kD mu subunit, mu1A, being replaced by the closely related mu1B. Here we show that this substitution is sufficient to couple basolateral plasma membrane proteins, such as a low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), to the AP-1B complex and to clathrin. The interaction between LDLR and AP-1B is likely to occur in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), as was suggested by the localization of functional, epitope-tagged mu1 by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Tagged AP-1A and AP-1B complexes were found in the perinuclear region close to the Golgi complex and recycling endosomes, often in clathrin-coated buds and vesicles. Yet, AP-1A and AP-1B localized to different subdomains of the TGN, with only AP-1A colocalizing with furin, a membrane protein that uses AP-1 to recycle between the TGN and endosomes. We conclude that AP-1B functions by interacting with its cargo molecules and clathrin in the TGN, where it acts to sort basolateral proteins from proteins destined for the apical surface and from those selected by AP-1A for transport to endosomes and lysosomes. (+info)