The beta2-adrenergic receptor/betaarrestin complex recruits the clathrin adaptor AP-2 during endocytosis.
betaarrestins mediate the desensitization of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) and many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Additionally, betaarrestins initiate the endocytosis of these receptors via clathrin coated-pits and interact directly with clathrin. Consequently, it has been proposed that betaarrestins serve as clathrin adaptors for the GPCR family by linking these receptors to clathrin lattices. AP-2, the heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein, has been demonstrated to mediate the internalization of many types of plasma membrane proteins other than GPCRs. AP-2 interacts with the clathrin heavy chain and cytoplasmic domains of receptors such as those for epidermal growth factor and transferrin. In the present study we demonstrate the formation of an agonist-induced multimeric complex containing a GPCR, betaarrestin 2, and the beta2-adaptin subunit of AP-2. beta2-Adaptin binds betaarrestin 2 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitates with betaarrestins and beta2AR in an agonist-dependent manner in HEK-293 cells. Moreover, beta2-adaptin translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in response to the beta2AR agonist isoproterenol and colocalizes with beta2AR in clathrin-coated pits. Finally, expression of betaarrestin 2 minigene constructs containing the beta2-adaptin interacting region inhibits beta2AR endocytosis. These findings point to a role for AP-2 in GPCR endocytosis, and they suggest that AP-2 functions as a clathrin adaptor for the endocytosis of diverse classes of membrane receptors. (+info)
Duplications on human chromosome 22 reveal a novel Ret Finger Protein-like gene family with sense and endogenous antisense transcripts.
Analysis of 600 kb of sequence encompassing the beta-prime adaptin (BAM22) gene on human chromosome 22 revealed intrachromosomal duplications within 22q12-13 resulting in three active RFPL genes, two RFPL pseudogenes, and two pseudogenes of BAM22. The genomic sequence of BAM22vartheta1 shows a remarkable similarity to that of BAM22. The cDNA sequence comparison of RFPL1, RFPL2, and RFPL3 showed 95%-96% identity between the genes, which were most similar to the Ret Finger Protein gene from human chromosome 6. The sense RFPL transcripts encode proteins with the tripartite structure, composed of RING finger, coiled-coil, and B30-2 domains, which are characteristic of the RING-B30 family. Each of these domains are thought to mediate protein-protein interactions by promoting homo- or heterodimerization. The MID1 gene on Xp22 is also a member of the RING-B30 family and is mutated in Opitz syndrome (OS). The autosomal dominant form of OS shows linkage to 22q11-q12. We detected a polymorphic protein-truncating allele of RFPL1 in 8% of the population, which was not associated with the OS phenotype. We identified 6-kb and 1.2-kb noncoding antisense mRNAs of RFPL1S and RFPL3S antisense genes, respectively. The RFPL1S and RFPL3S genes cover substantial portions of their sense counterparts, which suggests that the function of RFPL1S and RFPL3S is a post-transcriptional regulation of the sense RFPL genes. We illustrate the role of intrachromosomal duplications in the generation of RFPL genes, which were created by a series of duplications and share an ancestor with the RING-B30 domain containing genes from the major histocompatibility complex region on human chromosome 6. (+info)
The structure and function of the beta 2-adaptin appendage domain.
The heterotetrameric AP2 adaptor (alpha, beta 2, mu 2 and sigma 2 subunits) plays a central role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We present the protein recruitment function and 1.7 A resolution structure of its beta 2-appendage domain to complement those previously determined for the mu 2 subunit and alpha appendage. Using structure-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate the ability of the beta 2 appendage alone to bind directly to clathrin and the accessory proteins AP180, epsin and eps15 at the same site. Clathrin polymerization is promoted by binding of clathrin simultaneously to the beta 2-appendage site and to a second site on the adjacent beta 2 hinge. This results in the displacement of the other ligands from the beta 2 appendage. Thus clathrin binding to an AP2-accessory protein complex would cause the controlled release of accessory proteins at sites of vesicle formation. (+info)
beta2-adaptin is constitutively de-phosphorylated by serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A and phosphorylated by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis includes cycles of assembly and disassembly of the clathrin-coated vesicle constituents. How these cycles are regulated is still not fully known but previous studies have indicated that phosphorylation of coat subunits may play a role. Here we describe that beta2-adaptin undergoes cycles of phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation in intact cells. Thus, beta2-adaptin was constitutively de-phosphorylated by serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A and phosphorylated by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase in vivo. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that phosphorylated AP2 complexes were found more evenly distributed at the plasma membrane compared to non-phosphorylated AP2 complexes which were found in aggregates. Finally, we found that phosphorylation of beta2-adaptin correlated with inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our results support the hypothesis that phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of coat proteins plays a regulatory role in the assembly/disassembly cycle of clathrin-coated vesicles. (+info)
Defective organellar membrane protein trafficking in Ap3b1-deficient cells.
AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex involved in intracellular vesicle transport. Molecular analyses show that Ap3b1, which encodes the AP-3 (&bgr;)3A subunit, is altered in pearl mice. To provide genetic evidence that mutation of Ap3b1 is responsible for the pearl phenotype and to determine the null phenotype, the Ap3b1 gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the resulting allele, Ap3b1(LN), or compound heterozygotes with pearl, displayed phenotypes similar to those of pearl mice, confirming that Ap3b1 is the causal gene for pearl. Moreover, pearl is likely to be a hypomorph as the Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes had a lighter coat color and accumulated fewer of the micro3 and (&dgr;)3 subunits of AP-3 than did pearl mice. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis of fibroblasts and melanocytes cultured from Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes revealed that the lysosomal membrane proteins Lamp I and Lamp II and the melanosomal membrane protein tyrosinase were mislocalized. In particular, the Lamp proteins were clustered on the cell surface. These findings strengthen the evidence for an alternate pathway via the plasma membrane for cargo normally transported to organelles by AP-3. (+info)
A novel motor, KIF13A, transports mannose-6-phosphate receptor to plasma membrane through direct interaction with AP-1 complex.
Intracellular transport mediated by kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) is a highly regulated process. The molecular mechanism of KIFs binding to their respective cargoes remains unclear. We report that KIF13A is a novel plus end-directed microtubule-dependent motor protein and associates with beta 1-adaptin, a subunit of the AP-1 adaptor complex. The cargo vesicles of KIF13A contained AP-1 and mannnose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR). Overexpression of KIF13A resulted in mislocalization of the AP-1 and the M6PR. Functional blockade of KIF13A reduced cell surface expression of the M6PR. Thus, KIF13A transports M6PR-containing vesicles and targets the M6PR from TGN to the plasma membrane via direct interaction with the AP-1 adaptor complex. (+info)
Vps10p transport from the trans-Golgi network to the endosome is mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles.
A native immunoisolation procedure has been used to investigate the role of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) in the transport of vacuolar proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the prevacuolar/endosome compartments in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that Apl2p, one large subunit of the adaptor protein-1 complex, and Vps10p, the carboxypeptidase Y vacuolar protein receptor, are associated with clathrin molecules. Vps10p packaging in CCVs is reduced in pep12 Delta and vps34 Delta, two mutants that block Vps10p transport from the TGN to the endosome. However, Vps10p sorting is independent of Apl2p. Interestingly, a Vps10C(t) Delta p mutant lacking its C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, the portion of the receptor responsible for carboxypeptidase Y sorting, is also coimmunoprecipitated with clathrin. Our results suggest that CCVs mediate Vps10p transport from the TGN to the endosome independent of direct interactions between Vps10p and clathrin coats. The Vps10p C-terminal domain appears to play a principal role in retrieval of Vps10p from the prevacuolar compartment rather than in sorting from the TGN. (+info)
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 3 in Ashkenazi Jews and other non-Puerto Rican patients with hypopigmentation and platelet storage-pool deficiency.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), consisting of oculocutaneous albinism and a bleeding diathesis due to the absence of platelet dense granules, displays extensive locus heterogeneity. HPS1 mutations cause HPS-1 disease, and ADTB3A mutations cause HPS-2 disease, which is known to involve abnormal intracellular vesicle formation. A third HPS-causing gene, HPS3, was recently identified on the basis of homozygosity mapping of a genetic isolate of HPS in central Puerto Rico. We now describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of eight patients with HPS-3 who are of non-Puerto Rican heritage. Five are Ashkenazi Jews; three of these are homozygous for a 1303+1G-->A splice-site mutation that causes skipping of exon 5, deleting an RsaI restriction site and decreasing the amounts of mRNA found on northern blotting. The other two are heterozygous for the 1303+1G-->A mutation and for either an 1831+2T-->G or a 2621-2A-->G splicing mutation. Of 235 anonymous Ashkenazi Jewish DNA samples, one was heterozygous for the 1303+1G-->A mutation. One seven-year-old boy of German/Swiss extraction was compound heterozygous for a 2729+1G-->C mutation, causing skipping of exon 14, and resulting in a C1329T missense (R396W), with decreased mRNA production. A 15-year-old Irish/English boy was heterozygous for an 89-bp insertion between exons 16 and 17 resulting from abnormal splicing; his fibroblast HPS3 mRNA is normal in amount but is increased in size. A 12-year-old girl of Puerto Rican and Italian background has the 3,904-bp founder deletion from central Puerto Rico on one allele. All eight patients have mild symptoms of HPS; two Jewish patients had received the diagnosis of ocular, rather than oculocutaneous, albinism. These findings expand the molecular diagnosis of HPS, provide a screening method for a mutation common among Jews, and suggest that other patients with mild hypopigmentation and decreased vision should be examined for HPS. (+info)