Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38.
Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis. (+info)
Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis.
Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner. (+info)
Association of AP1 adaptor complexes with GLUT4 vesicles.
Nycodenz gradients have been used to examine the in vitro effects of GTP-(gamma)-S on adaptor complex association with GLUT4 vesicles. On addition of GTP-(gamma)-S, GLUT4 fractionates as a heavier population of vesicles, which we suggest is due to a budding or coating reaction. Under these conditions there is an increase in co-sedimentation of GLUT4 with AP1, but not with AP3. Western blotting of proteins associated with isolated GLUT4 vesicles shows the presence of high levels of AP1 and some AP3 but very little AP2 adaptor complexes. Cell free, in vitro association of the AP1 complex with GLUT4 vesicles is increased approximately 4-fold by the addition of GTP-(gamma)-S and an ATP regenerating system. Following GTP-(gamma)-S treatment in vitro, ARF is also recruited to GLUT4 vesicles, and the temperature dependence of ARF recruitment closely parallels that of AP1. The recruitment of both AP1 and ARF are partially blocked by brefeldin A. These data demonstrate that the coating of GLUT4 vesicles can be studied in isolated cell-free fractions. Furthermore, at least two distinct adaptor complexes can associate with the GLUT4 vesicles and it is likely that these adaptors are involved in mediating distinct intracellular sorting events at the level of TGN and endosomes. (+info)
The leucine-based sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of the invariant chain are recognized by the clathrin adaptors AP1 and AP2 and their medium chains.
Recognition of sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins by adaptor protein complexes is a crucial step in membrane protein sorting. The three known adaptor complexes, AP1, AP2, and AP3, have all been shown to recognize tyrosine- and leucine-based sorting signals, which are the most common sorting signals within membrane protein cytoplasmic tails. Although tyrosine-based signals are recognized by the micro-chains of adaptor complexes, the subunit recognizing leucine-based sorting signals is less clear. In this report we show by surface plasmon resonance that the two leucine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain bind independently from each other to AP1 and AP2 but not to AP3. We also show that both motifs can be recognized by the micro-chains of AP1 and AP2. Moreover, by using monomeric as well as trimeric invariant chain constructs, we show that adaptor binding does not require trimerization of the invariant chain. (+info)
Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting motif.
HIV-1 Nef interacts with cellular adaptor protein (AP) complexes and their medium (mu) subunits. However, the role of the dileucine-based sorting motif within Nef in these interactions has been incompletely characterized. Here, yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that HIV-1 Nef interacted not only with the mu subunits of AP-1 and AP-2, but also with that of AP-3. The interactions with mu1 and mu3 were markedly stronger than the interaction with mu2. Leucine residues of the sorting motif were required for the interactions with mu3 and mu2 and contributed to the interaction with mu1. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Nef, AP-1, and AP-3 (but not AP-2) were concentrated in a juxtanuclear region near the cell center, potentially facilitating interaction between Nef and the mu1 and mu3 subunits. However, leucine residues of the sorting motif were not required for this subcellular localization of Nef. These data suggest that the dileucine motif, required for optimal viral replication, functions through interactions with a variety of AP complexes, including AP-3, potentially by recruiting adaptor complexes to subcellular locations specified by additional determinants in the Nef protein. (+info)
RLIP76, an effector of the GTPase Ral, interacts with the AP2 complex: involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis.
RLIP76 is a modular protein that was identified as a putative effector of Ral, a GTPase activated during Ras signaling. To explore further the contribution of the Ral-RLIP76 pathway to Ras signaling, we have looked for partners of RLIP76. Mu2, the medium chain of the AP2 complex is shown to interact with RLIP76. We show also that in vivo endogenous AP2 and RLIP76 form a complex and that this in vivo interaction is independent of cells being stimulated by a growth factor. Furthermore, RLIP76 differentiates AP2 from AP1 in vivo as RLIP76 differentiates mu2 from mu1 in vitro and in two hybrid assays. We show that activated Ral interferes with both tranferrin receptor endocytosis and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells. We propose a model where the Ral-RLIP76 pathway connects signal transduction and endocytosis through interaction on one hand between the Ras-Ral pathway and RLIP, on the other hand between RLIP and proteins belonging to the endocytotic machinery. (+info)
Defective organellar membrane protein trafficking in Ap3b1-deficient cells.
AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex involved in intracellular vesicle transport. Molecular analyses show that Ap3b1, which encodes the AP-3 (&bgr;)3A subunit, is altered in pearl mice. To provide genetic evidence that mutation of Ap3b1 is responsible for the pearl phenotype and to determine the null phenotype, the Ap3b1 gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the resulting allele, Ap3b1(LN), or compound heterozygotes with pearl, displayed phenotypes similar to those of pearl mice, confirming that Ap3b1 is the causal gene for pearl. Moreover, pearl is likely to be a hypomorph as the Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes had a lighter coat color and accumulated fewer of the micro3 and (&dgr;)3 subunits of AP-3 than did pearl mice. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis of fibroblasts and melanocytes cultured from Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes revealed that the lysosomal membrane proteins Lamp I and Lamp II and the melanosomal membrane protein tyrosinase were mislocalized. In particular, the Lamp proteins were clustered on the cell surface. These findings strengthen the evidence for an alternate pathway via the plasma membrane for cargo normally transported to organelles by AP-3. (+info)
Multiple C-terminal motifs of the 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor tail contribute to efficient binding of medium chains of AP-2 and AP-3.
The interaction of adaptor protein (AP) complexes with signal structures in the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins is required for intracellular sorting. Tyrosine- or dileucine-based motifs have been reported to bind to medium chain subunits (mu) of AP-1, AP-2, or AP-3. In the present study, we have examined the interaction of the entire 67-amino acid cytoplasmic domain of the 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR46-CT) containing tyrosine- as well as dileucine-based motifs with mu2 and mu3A chains using the yeast two-hybrid system. Both mu2 and mu3A bind specifically to the MPR46-CT. In contrast, mu3A fails to bind to the cytoplasmic domain of the 300-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Mutational analysis of the MPR46-CT revealed that the tyrosine-based motif and distal sequences rich in acidic amino acid residues are sufficient for effective binding to mu2. However, the dileucine motif was found to be one part of a consecutive complex C-terminal structure comprising tyrosine and dileucine motifs as well as clusters of acidic residues necessary for efficient binding of mu3A. Alanine substitution of 2 or 4 acidic amino acid residues of this cluster reduces the binding to mu3A much more than to mu2. The data suggest that the MPR46 is capable of interacting with different AP complexes using multiple partially overlapping sorting signals, which might depend on posttranslational modifications or subcellular localization of the receptor. (+info)