Aminoacyl-CoAs as probes of condensation domain selectivity in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. (1/1356)

In nonribosomal biosynthesis of peptide antibiotics by multimodular synthetases, amino acid monomers are activated by the adenylation domains of the synthetase and loaded onto the adjacent carrier protein domains as thioesters, then the formation of peptide bonds and translocation of the growing chain are effected by the synthetase's condensation domains. Whether the condensation domains have any editing function has been unknown. Synthesis of aminoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules and direct enzymatic transfer of aminoacyl-phosphopantetheine to the carrier domains allow the adenylation domain editing function to be bypassed. This method was used to demonstrate that the first condensation domain of tyrocidine synthetase shows low selectivity at the donor residue (D-phenylalanine) and higher selectivity at the acceptor residue (L-proline) in the formation of the chain-initiating D-Phe-L-Pro dipeptidyl-enzyme intermediate.  (+info)

Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC. (2/1356)

The activities of beta-oxidation enzymes were measured in extracts of glucose- and triolein-grown cells of Aspergillus niger. Growth on triolein stimulated increased enzyme activity, especially for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected. HPLC analysis after incubation of triolein-grown cell extracts with decanoyl-CoA showed that beta-oxidation was limited to one cycle. Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi.  (+info)

Inositol acylation of glycosylphosphatidylinositols in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans and the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/1356)

Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungus responsible for life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients, is able to synthesize glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) structures. Radiolabelling experiments in vitro with the use of a cryptococcal cell-free system showed that the pathway begins as in other eukaryotes, with the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, followed by deacetylation of the sugar residue. The third step, acylation of the inositol ring, seemed to involve a fatty acid other than palmitate, in contrast with previous findings in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian GPI pathways. A systematic study of inositol acylation in C. neoformans and S. cerevisiae showed that both organisms used a variety of fatty acids in this step; these were transferred directly from acyl-CoA to inositol without modification. However, the specificity of fatty acid utilization was quite distinct in the two fungi, with the pathogen being substantially more restrictive. In mammalian cells fatty acids added exogenously as acyl-CoAs are not transferred directly to inositol. These results suggest significant differences in the GPI biosynthetic pathway between mammalian and C. neoformans cells that could represent targets for anti-cryptococcal therapy.  (+info)

Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA isomerase, a novel enzyme that functions in the beta-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. (4/1356)

The mitochondrial metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds at odd-numbered positions, e.g. 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoic acid, was investigated. These fatty acids are substrates of beta-oxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria and hence are expected to yield 5,7-dienoyl-CoA intermediates. 5, 7-Decadienoyl-CoA was used to study the degradation of these intermediates. After introduction of a 2-trans-double bond by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase or acyl-CoA oxidase, the resultant 2,5, 7-decatrienoyl-CoA can either continue its pass through the beta-oxidation cycle or be converted by Delta3,Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase to 3,5,7-decatrienoyl-CoA. The latter compound was isomerized by a novel enzyme, named Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4, 6-trienoyl-CoA isomerase, to 2,4,6-decatrienoyl-CoA, which is a substrate of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (Wang, H.-Y. and Schulz, H. (1989) Biochem. J. 264, 47-52) and hence can be completely degraded via beta-oxidation. Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4,6-Trienoyl-CoA isomerase was purified from pig heart to apparent homogeneity and found to be a component enzyme of Delta3,5,Delta2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase. Although the direct beta-oxidation of 2,5,7-decatrienoyl-CoA seems to be the major pathway, the degradation via 2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA makes a significant contribution to the total beta-oxidation of this intermediate.  (+info)

Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance study of metabolism of propionate by Escherichia coli. (5/1356)

We have evaluated the use of [1,2-13C2]propionate for the analysis of propionic acid metabolism, based on the ability to distinguish between the methylcitrate and methylmalonate pathways. Studies using propionate-adapted Escherichia coli MG1655 cells were performed. Preservation of the 13C-13C-12C carbon skeleton in labeled alanine and alanine-containing peptides involved in cell wall recycling is indicative of the direct formation of pyruvate from propionate via the methylcitrate cycle, the enzymes of which have recently been demonstrated in E. coli. Additionally, formation of 13C-labeled formate from pyruvate by the action of pyruvate-formate lyase is also consistent with the labeling of pyruvate C-1. Carboxylation of the labeled pyruvate leads to formation of [1,2-13C2]oxaloacetate and to multiply labeled glutamate and succinate isotopomers, also consistent with the flux through the methylcitrate pathway, followed by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Additional labeling of TCA intermediates arises due to the formation of [1-13C]acetyl coenzyme A from the labeled pyruvate, formed via pyruvate-formate lyase. Labeling patterns in trehalose and glycine are also interpreted in terms of the above pathways. The information derived from the [1, 2-13C2]propionate label is contrasted with information which can be derived from singly or triply labeled propionate and shown to be more useful for distinguishing the different propionate utilization pathways via nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.  (+info)

Purification, characterization, DNA sequence and cloning of a pimeloyl-CoA synthetase from Pseudomonas mendocina 35. (6/1356)

A pimeloyl-CoA synthetase from Pseudomonas mendocina 35 was purified and characterized, the DNA sequence determined, and the gene cloned into Escherichia coli to yield an active enzyme. The purified enzyme had a pH optimum of approximately 8.0, Km values of 0.49 mM for pimelic acid, 0.18 mM for CoA and 0.72 mM for ATP, a subunit Mr of approximately 80000 as determined by SDS/PAGE, and was found to be a tetramer by gel-filtration chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 77.3 units/mg of protein. The enzyme was not absolutely specific for pimelic acid. The relative activity for adipic acid (C6) was 72% and for azaleic acid (C9) was 18% of that for pimelic acid (C7). The N-terminal amino acid was blocked to amino acid sequencing, but controlled proteolysis resulted in three peptide fragments for which amino acid sequences were obtained. An oligonucleotide gene probe corresponding to one of the amino acid sequences was synthesized and used to isolate the gene (pauA, pimelic acid-utilizing A) coding for pimeloyl-CoA synthetase. The pauA gene, which codes for a protein with a theoretical Mr of 74643, was then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed similarity to hypothetical proteins from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Methanococcus jannaschii, Pyrococcus horikoshii, E. coli and Streptomyces coelicolor, and some limited similarity to microbial succinyl-CoA synthetases. The similarity with the protein from A. fulgidus was especially strong, thus indicating a function for this unidentified protein. The pauA gene was cloned into E. coli, where it was expressed and resulted in an active enzyme.  (+info)

Short-chain acyl-CoA-dependent production of oxalate from oxaloacetate by Burkholderia glumae, a plant pathogen which causes grain rot and seedling rot of rice via the oxalate production. (7/1356)

In Burkholderia glumae (formerly named Pseudomonas glumae), isolated as the causal agent of grain rot and seedling rot of rice, oxalate was produced from oxaloacetate in the presence of short-chain acyl-CoA such as acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA. Upon purification, the enzyme responsible was separated into two fractions (tentatively named fractions II and III), both of which were required for the acyl-CoA-dependent production of oxalate. In conjugation with the oxalate production from oxaloacetate catalyzed by fractions II and III, acetyl-CoA used as the acyl-CoA substrate was consumed and equivalent amounts of CoASH and acetoacetate were formed. The isotope incorporation pattern indicated that the two carbon atoms of oxalate are both derived from oxaloacetate, and among the four carbon atoms of acetoacetate two are from oxaloacetate and two from acetyl-CoA. When the reaction was carried out with fraction II alone, a decrease in acetyl-CoA and an equivalent level of net utilization of oxaloacetate were observed without appreciable formation of CoASH, acetoacetate or oxalate. It appears that in the oxalate production from oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA, fraction II catalyzes condensation of the two substrates to form an intermediate which is split into oxalate and acetoacetate by fraction III being accompanied by the release of CoASH.  (+info)

NIH shift in flavin-dependent monooxygenation: mechanistic studies with 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase. (8/1356)

The flavoprotein 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase from the eubacterium Azoarcus evansii catalyzes the dearomatization of 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA. The reaction consists in an O2-dependent monooxygenation at the benzene position 5, which is followed immediately by an NADH-dependent hydrogenation of the intermediate at the same catalytic locus. The reaction was studied by 1H, 2H, and 13C NMR spectroscopy of the products. The main product was characterized as 5-oxo-2-aminocyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Thus, [5-2H]2-aminobenzoyl-CoA was converted into [6-2H]5-oxo-2-aminocyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA, indicating a 5 --> 6 shift of the [5-2H] label. Label from NAD2H was transferred to the 3 position of the cyclic eneamine, whereas label from solvent D2O was incorporated into the 4 and the 6 positions of 5-oxo-2-aminocyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA. The labeling pattern is compatible with the monooxygenation proceeding via what is formally an NIH shift, yielding 5-oxo-2-aminocyclohex-1, 3-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA as a protein-bound intermediate. It is suggested that this shift in flavin-dependent monooxygenation may have general validity.  (+info)