Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis.
In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning. (+info)
Scanning electron microscopy of the lateral cell surfaces of rat incisor ameloblasts.
Dry dissected rat incisor ameloblasts studied in the scanning electron microscope show remarkable specializations of their lateral surfaces. Four or five cycles of a change from a surface with longitudinal gutterlike folds associated with large intercellular spaces, to one with microvilli and reduced intercellular spaces, are found along the length of the lower incisor maturation zone. It is argued that these changes indicate cyclical activity in maturation ameloblasts. (+info)
Many LH peaks are needed to physiologically stimulate testosterone secretion: modulation by fasting and NPY.
The pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone secretions were studied during serial blood collections performed at 7-min time intervals in the male rat. In fed rats, a discontinuous pattern of LH secretion was observed. Periods without secretion alternated with active secretory episodes consisting in trains of three to four LH peaks that triggered testosterone secretion usually 1-2 h later. The magnitude of the testosterone response was not correlated with the amplitude of the LH peaks. Isolated, single peaks of LH did not evoke clear testosterone responses. Forty-eight hours after initiation of fasting, testosterone secretion was markedly decreased, but integrated LH secretion was only partly reduced. Chronic infusion of neuropeptide Y (NPY; 18 microgram/day, icv) reduced testosterone secretion to very low levels and abolished pulsatile LH secretion or testosterone response to isolated LH peaks. In conclusion, the stimulation of testosterone secretion by LH necessitates several LH peaks organized in a proper sequence, and the testosterone response is not immediate. Low testosterone secretion in fasting rats appears to result from disappearance of coordinated, multiple LH peaks of sufficient size. Inhibition of the gonadotropic axis achieved by central NPY administration is due to either absence of LH peak "clusters" or occurrence of nonfunctional single LH peaks. (+info)
Activity patterns and synaptic organization of ventrally located interneurons in the embryonic chick spinal cord.
To investigate the origin of spontaneous activity in developing spinal networks, we examined the activity patterns and synaptic organization of ventrally located lumbosacral interneurons, including those whose axons project into the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF), in embryonic day 9 (E9)-E12 chick embryos. During spontaneous episodes, rhythmic synaptic potentials were recorded from the VLF and from spinal interneurons that were synchronized, cycle by cycle, with rhythmic ventral root potentials. At the beginning of an episode, ventral root potentials started before the VLF discharge and the firing of individual interneurons. However, pharmacological blockade of recurrent motoneuron collaterals did not prevent or substantially delay interneuron recruitment during spontaneous episodes. The synaptic connections of interneurons were examined by stimulating the VLF and recording the potentials evoked in the ventral roots, in the VLF, or in individual interneurons. Low-intensity stimulation of the VLF evoked a short-latency depolarizing potential in the ventral roots, or in interneurons, that was probably mediated mono- or disynaptically. At higher intensities, long-latency responses were recruited in a highly nonlinear manner, eventually culminating in the activation of an episode. VLF-evoked potentials were reversibly blocked by extracellular Co2+, indicating that they were mediated by chemical synaptic transmission. Collectively, these findings indicate that ventral interneurons are rhythmically active, project to motoneurons, and are likely to be interconnected by recurrent excitatory synaptic connections. This pattern of organization may explain the synchronous activation of spinal neurons and the regenerative activation of spinal networks when provided with a suprathreshold stimulus. (+info)
Lispro or regular insulin for multiple injection therapy in adolescence. Differences in free insulin and glucose levels overnight.
OBJECTIVE: Regular insulin given with the evening meal could contribute to the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using a multiple injection regimen. To test this hypothesis, we compared glucodynamics and free insulin levels on two separate study nights. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 14 adolescents were recruited. On both nights, identical doses of regular insulin or insulin lispro were administered 30 min or 10 min, respectively, before the evening meal, using a double-blind randomized crossover study design. Doses of NPH insulin and carbohydrate content of the evening meal and snack were kept identical. Blood samples were taken every 15 min for blood glucose and every 60 min for free insulin and ketones. RESULTS: After insulin lispro administration, glucose levels were significantly lower between the evening meal and the bedtime snack (analysis of variance [ANOVA] P = 0.02), and four hypoglycemic episodes were recorded. This corresponded to a higher (458 +/- 48 vs. 305 +/- 33 pmol/l, P = 0.02), earlier (64 +/- 4.6 vs. 103 +/- 12 min, P = 0.01), and shorter-lasting (245 +/- 21 vs. 365 +/- 39 min, P = 0.01) insulin peak in contrast to regular insulin. After the bedtime snack, glucose levels increased dramatically during the lispro night and stayed higher, up to 0300 in the morning (ANOVA P = 0.01), corresponding to lower mean insulin levels (146 +/- 20 vs. 184 +/- 27 pmol/l, P = 0.04). No differences were seen in glucose and insulin levels between 0300 and 0800. Four episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia were documented after the bedtime snack during the regular insulin night, in contrast to one episode after insulin lispro. No differences in ketone levels were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The replacement of regular insulin with insulin lispro may reduce the risk of late hypoglycemia, but redistribution of the evening carbohydrate may be needed to ensure good metabolic control and prevent early postprandial hypoglycemia. (+info)
Intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons derived from the embryonic olfactory placode of the rhesus monkey.
To understand the mechanism of pulsatile luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release, we examined whether cultured LHRH neurons exhibit spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) signaling. The olfactory placode and the ventral migratory pathway of LHRH neurons from rhesus monkey embryos at embryonic ages 35-37 were dissected out and cultured on glass coverslips. Two to five weeks later, cultured cells were labeled with fura-2 and examined for [Ca(2+)](i) signaling by recording changes in [Ca(2+)](i) every 10 sec for 30-175 min. Cells were fixed and immunostained for LHRH and neuron-specific enolase. In 20 cultures, 572 LHRH-positive cells exhibited [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations at an interpulse interval (IPI) of 8.2 +/- 0.7 min and a duration of 88.8 +/- 2.9 sec. LHRH-negative neurons in culture exhibited only occasional [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. In 17 of 20 cultures with LHRH-positive cells, [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations occurred synchronously in 50-100% of the individual cells, whereas [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in cells in the remaining three cultures did not synchronize. Strikingly, in 12 of 17 cultures the synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations repeatedly occurred in complete unison at 52.8 +/- 3.0 min intervals, which is similar to the period observed for LHRH release, whereas in 5 of 17 cultures the less tight synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations repeatedly occurred at 23.4 +/- 4.6 min intervals. IPI of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in cells with tight synchronization and less tight synchronization did not differ from IPI in cells without synchronization. The results indicate that LHRH neurons derived from the monkey olfactory placode possess an endogenous mechanism for synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. Whether synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations relates to neurosecretion remains to be investigated. (+info)
Oscillatory behavior of a simple kinetic model for proteolysis during cell invasion.
Extracellular proteolysis during cell invasion is thought to be tightly organized, both temporally and spatially. This work presents a simple kinetic model that describes the interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, proteinases, proteolytic fragments, and integrins. Nonmonotonous behavior arises from enzyme de novo synthesis consecutive to integrin binding to fragments or entire proteins. The model has been simulated using realistic values for kinetic constants and protein concentrations, with fibronectin as the ECM protein. The simulations show damped oscillations of integrin-complex concentrations, indicating alternation of maximal adhesion periods with maximal mobility periods. Comparisons with experimental data from the literature confirm the similarity between this system behavior and cell invasion. The influences on the system of cryptic functions of ECM proteins, proteinase inhibitors, and soluble antiadhesive peptides were examined. The first critical parameter for oscillation is the discrepancy between integrin affinity for intact ECM proteins and the respective proteolytic fragments, thus emphasizing the importance of cryptic functions of ECM proteins in cell invasion. Another critical parameter is the ratio between proteinase and the initial ECM protein concentration. These results suggest new insights into the organization of the ECM degradation during cell invasion. (+info)
Circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus are temperature-compensated and phase-shifted by heat pulses in vitro.
Temperature compensation and the effects of heat pulses on rhythm phase were assessed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Circadian neuronal rhythms were recorded from the rat SCN at 37 and 31 degrees C in vitro. Rhythm period was 23.9 +/- 0.1 and 23.7 +/- 0.1 hr at 37 and 31 degrees C, respectively; the Q(10) for tau was 0.99. Heat pulses were administered at various circadian times (CTs) by increasing SCN temperature from 34 to 37 degrees C for 2 hr. Phase delays and advances were observed during early and late subjective night, respectively, and no phase shifts were obtained during midsubjective day. Maximum phase delays of 2.2 +/- 0.3 hr were obtained at CT 14, and maximum phase advances of 3.5 +/- 0.2 hr were obtained at CT 20. Phase delays were not blocked by a combination of NMDA [AP-5 (100 microM)] and non-NMDA [CNQX (10 microM)] receptor antagonists or by tetrodotoxin (TTX) at concentrations of 1 or 3 microM. The phase response curve for heat pulses is similar to ones obtained with light pulses for behavioral rhythms. These data demonstrate that circadian pacemaker period in the rat SCN is temperature-compensated over a physiological range of temperatures. Phase delays were not caused by activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors, release of other neurotransmitters, or temperature-dependent increases in metabolism associated with action potentials. Heat pulses may have phase-shifted rhythms by directly altering transcriptional or translational events in SCN pacemaker cells. (+info)